Table of Contents

Instructions for online access

Cover image

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Contributors

Preface

Preface to the First Edition

Video Contents

Volume 1

Part I Fundamentals of Cardiovascular Disease

1 Global Burden of Cardiovascular Disease

Shifting Burden

Epidemiologic Transitions

Current Variations in the Global Burden

Risk Factors

Economic Burden

Cost-Effective Solutions

Summary and Conclusion

References

2 Ethics in Cardiovascular Medicine

Informed Consent and Decision Aids

Clinical Ethical Judgments of Futility

Conflicts of Interest and Disclosure

Public Reporting

Social Media and Mobile Health

Genetics

Transplantation

Conclusion

References

3 Clinical Decision Making in Cardiology

Clinical Reasoning

Diagnostic Decisions

Therapeutic Decisions

Changing Clinical Practice Based on New Findings

Shared Decision Making

Monitoring the Quality of Clinical Decisions

Conclusion

References

4 Measuring and Improving Quality of Care

Defining Quality of Care

Measuring Health Care Quality and Uses of Quality Measurements

Improving Quality of Care

Conclusion

Classic References

References

5 Critical Evaluation of Clinical Trials

Constructing the Research Question

Clinical Trial Design

Key Issues

Measures and Detection of Treatment Effect

Future Perspectives

References

Part II Genetics and Personalized Medicine

6 Personalized and Precision Cardiovascular Medicine

The Core Concepts of Personalized and Precision Medicine

Genetics

Genomics and Functional Genomics

Drug Responses and Pharmacogenetics

Missing Data: What Is Needed for Precision

Integrating Discovery and Care

Barriers to Precision Medicine

Future Perspectives

References

7 Principles of Cardiovascular Genetics

Inherited Basis for the Variation in Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

A Brief Primer on Molecular Biology

Modes of Inheritance

Approaches to Discovering the Inherited Basis for Cardiovascular Disease

Illustrative Examples

Clinical Application of Genetic Findings

Future Perspectives

References

8 Drug Therapeutics and Personalized Medicine

Risk Versus Benefit of Drug Therapy

Optimizing Drug Doses

Future Perspectives

References

9 Biomarkers and Use in Precision Medicine

Overview of Biomarkers

Proteomics and Metabolomics

Clinical Measures of Biomarker Performance

Conclusion

References

References

Part III Evaluation of The Patient

10 History and Physical Examination

The History

The General Physical Examination

The Cardiovascular Examination

Integrated, Evidence-Based Approach to Specific Cardiac Disorders

Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

References

11 Anesthesia and Noncardiac Surgery in Patients with Heart Disease

Assessment of Risk

Valvular Heart Disease (see also Part VIII)

Congenital Heart Disease in Adults ( )

Arrhythmias (see Part V)

The Decision to Undergo Diagnostic Testing

Tests to Improve Identification and Definition of Cardiovascular Disease

Overview of Anesthesia for Cardiac Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery

Postoperative Management

Surveillance and Implications of Perioperative Cardiac Complications

Strategies to Reduce the Cardiac Risk Associated With Noncardiac Surgery

Conclusion

References

12 Electrocardiography

The Normal Electrocardiogram

The Abnormal Electrocardiogram

Clinical Issues in Electrocardiographic Interpretation

Future Perspectives

Electrocardiography

References

References

13 Exercise Electrocardiographic Testing

Exercise Physiology

Technical Components of Exercise Testing

Exercise Testing in Coronary Artery Disease

Exercise Testing in Nonatherosclerotic Heart Disease

Additional Uses for Exercise Testing

Acknowledgment

References

14 Echocardiography

Principles of Ultrasound and Instrumentation

The Standard Adult Transthoracic Echocardiographic Examination

Transesophageal Echocardiography

Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

Contrast Echocardiography

Myocardial Infarction

Cardiomyopathies

Stress Echocardiography

Valvular Heart Disease ( )

Pericardial Disease

Diseases of the Aorta

Infective Endocarditis

Pulmonary Hypertension

Cardiac Masses

Adult Congenital Heart Disease

Cardiac Procedures and Future Directions

Echocardiography

References

References

15 The Chest Radiograph in Cardiovascular Disease

Overview

Approach to Evaluation of a Chest Radiograph

Specific Cardiovascular Diseases

Conclusion

Classic References

References

16 Nuclear Cardiology

Technical Aspects of Image Acquisition, Display, and Interpretation

Myocardial Blood Flow, Myocardial Metabolism, and Ventricular Function

Disease Detection, Risk Stratification, and Clinical Decision Making

Molecular Imaging of the Cardiovascular System

Classic References

References

17 Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Patient Safety

Application in Specific Disorders and Conditions

Novel CMR Imaging Techniques

Future Perspectives

References

18 Cardiac Computed Tomography

Basics of Cardiac and Coronary Computed Tomography

Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring

Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography

Assessment of Cardiovascular Structure and Function

Multimodality Imaging in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease and Heart Failure

References

Classic References

References

19 Cardiac Catheterization

Operational Aspects of Cardiac Catheterization

Catheterization Laboratory Protocol

Technical Aspects and Procedural Performance

Hemodynamic Measurements

Clinical Aspects and Integration Into Patient Care

Endomyocardial Biopsy

Adjunctive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques

Acknowledgment

Classic References

References

20 Coronary Angiography and Intravascular Imaging

Indications for Coronary Angiography

Coronary Arteriography Technique

Angiographic Projections

Coronary Anatomy

Coronary Artery Anomalies

Pitfalls of Coronary Angiography

Angiogram Evaluation

Special Lesion Considerations

Fractional Flow Reserve

Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio

Coronary Intravascular Imaging

Classic References

References

Part IV Heart Failure

21 Approach to the Patient with Heart Failure

Definition and Epidemiology

The Medical History and Physical Examination

Routine Laboratory Assessment

Risk Scoring for Prognosis

Right-Heart Catheterization

Endomyocardial Biopsy

Detection of Comorbid Conditions

Assessment of Quality of Life

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

Imaging Modalities

Future Perspectives

Initial Evaluation of the Patient with Heart Failure

References

References

22 Mechanisms of Cardiac Contraction and Relaxation

Microanatomy of Contractile Cells and Proteins

Calcium Ion Fluxes in Cardiac Contraction-Relaxation Cycle

Sarcolemmal Control of Ca and Na

Adrenergic Signaling Systems

Cholinergic and Nitric Oxide Signaling

Contractile Performance of Intact Hearts

Future Perspectives

References

23 Pathophysiology of Heart Failure

Overview

Pathogenesis

Heart Failure as a Progressive Model

Future Perspectives

References

24 Diagnosis and Management of Acute Heart Failure

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Evaluation of the Patient With Acute Heart Failure

Management of the Patient With Acute Heart Failure

Future Perspectives

The Hospitalized Patient

References

25 Management of Heart Failure Patients with Reduced Ejection Fraction

Etiology

Prognosis

Approach to the Patient

Management of Fluid Retention

Prevention of Disease Progression

Management of Patients Who Remain Symptomatic

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

Management of Atherosclerotic Disease

Special Populations

Anticoagulation and Antiplatelet Therapy

Management of Cardiac Arrhythmias

Device Therapy

Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Disease Management Approach to Heart Failure

Patients With Refractory End-Stage Heart Failure (Stage D)

Future Perspectives

Management of Heart Failure with a Reduced Ejection Fraction

References

References

Pharmacogenomics in Heart Failure

Digoxin

26 Heart Failure with a Preserved Ejection Fraction

Overview

Terminology

Natural History

Pathophysiology

Clinical Features

Therapy

Future Perspectives

Heart Failure with a Preserved Ejection Fraction

References

References

27 Devices for Monitoring and Managing Heart Failure

Ventricular Dyssynchrony: the Target of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure

Implantable Devices to Monitor Heart Failure

Conclusion

Cardiac Resynchronization and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Heart Failure with a Reduced Ejection Fraction

References

References

28 Surgical Management of Heart Failure

Coronary Artery Revascularization

Valve Surgery in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction

Left Ventricular Reconstruction

Cardiac Transplantation

Future Perspectives

References

Mitral Valve Repair for Mitral Regurgitation in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

Passive Cardiac Support Devices

29 Mechanical Circulatory Support

Indications and Device Selection

Design of Ventricular Assist Devices

Patient Selection, Comorbidity, and Timing of Intervention

Patient Outcomes

Interagency Registry of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support

Future Perspectives

References

Engineering Designs of Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs)

Important Medical Conditions in Instituting Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS)

Clinical Trials with the HeartMate II Device

30 Cardiovascular Regeneration and Repair

Regeneration

Disease Modeling

Future Perspectives and Prospects for Cardiac Repair

Acknowledgments

References

31 Management of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Approaching End of Life

Integration of Palliative Care Into Cardiovascular Care

Having Difficult Conversations

Medical Decision Making Near the End of Life

Treatment of Symptoms Approaching End of Life

Psychosocial Support

The Site for the End of Life

Future Perspectives

References

Removing Therapies and Futility

Complex Treatment Decisions

Changing the Culture of Palliative Care

Part V Arrhythmias, Sudden Death, and Syncope

32 Approach to the Patient with Cardiac Arrhythmias

Signs and Symptoms

Physical Findings

Clinical and Laboratory Testing

Approach to Specific Symptoms/Conditions

References

33 Genetics of Cardiac Arrhythmias

The QT-Opathies

The Other Channelopathies

Future Perspectives

References

34 Mechanisms of Cardiac Arrhythmias

Foundations of Cardiac Electrophysiology

Structure and Function of the Cardiac Electrical Network

Mechanisms of Arrhythmogenesis

References

35 Diagnosis of Cardiac Arrhythmias

Patient History

Physical Examination

Electrocardiogram

Additional Tests

Invasive Electrophysiologic Studies

Ambulatory Electrocardiographic and Electrophysiologic Testing

References

References

36 Therapy for Cardiac Arrhythmias

Pharmacologic Therapy

Electrotherapy for Cardiac Arrhythmias

Surgical Therapy for Tachyarrhythmias

References

37 Supraventricular Arrhythmias

Normal Sinus Rhythm

Tachyarrhythmias

Supraventricular Tachycardias

References

38 Atrial Fibrillation: Clinical Features, Mechanisms, and Management

Electrocardiographic Features

Classification of Atrial Fibrillation

Epidemiology of Atrial Fibrillation

Mechanisms of Atrial Fibrillation

Genetic Factors

Causes of Atrial Fibrillation

Clinical Features

Diagnostic Evaluation

Prevention of Thromboembolic Complications

Acute Management of Atrial Fibrillation

Long-Term Management of Atrial Fibrillation

Nonpharmacologic Management of Atrial Fibrillation

Specific Clinical Syndromes

Future Perspectives

Atrial Fibrillation

Reference

References

39 Ventricular Arrhythmias

Premature Ventricular Complexes

Ventricular Tachycardia

Ventricular Flutter and Fibrillation

References

40 Bradyarrhythmias and Atrioventricular Block

Bradyarrhythmias

Atrioventricular Block (Heart Block)

Atrioventricular Dissociation

References

Atrioventricular Dissociation

41 Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

Pacemakers

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

Complications

Follow-Up

Cardiac Pacemakers and Cardioverter-Defibrillators

References

References

42 Cardiac Arrest and Sudden Cardiac Death

Perspective

Definitions

Epidemiology

Causes of Sudden Cardiac Death

Clinical Features of Patients With Cardiac Arrest

Management of Cardiac Arrest

Prevention of Cardiac Arrest and Sudden Cardiac Death

Sudden Death and Public Safety

References

43 Hypotension and Syncope

Definition

Classification

Vascular Causes of Syncope

Cardiac Causes of Syncope

Neurologic Causes of Transient Loss of Consciousness

Metabolic Causes of Transient Loss of Consciousness

Diagnostic Tests

Approach to the Evaluation of Patients With Syncope

Management of Patients With Syncope

Future Perspectives

References

Part VI Preventive Cardiology

44 The Vascular Biology of Atherosclerosis

Overview and Background

Structure of the Normal Artery

Atherosclerosis Initiation

Evolution of Atheroma

Complication of Atherosclerosis

Special Cases of Arteriosclerosis

References

45 Risk Markers and the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

Rethinking Core Approaches to Primary Prevention

What Works and in Whom? A Simple Evidence-Based Alternative to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

Merging Epidemiology and Randomized Trial Evidence: Why Measure Risk Factors?

Conventional Risk Markers and Associated Interventions

Nonconventional Risk Markers and Associated Interventions

Environmental Exposures and Associated Interventions

References

46 Systemic Hypertension

Overview of Hypertension

Mechanisms of Primary (Essential) Hypertension

Initial Evaluation of the Hypertensive Patient

Adrenal and Other Causes of Hypertension

Other Causes of Hypertension

Future Perspectives

References

47 Systemic Hypertension

Lifestyle Modification

Antihypertensive Drugs

Percutaneous Interventions for Management of Blood Pressure

Evidence-Based Approach to Hypertension Management

Special Considerations in Management

Management of Hypertensive Crises

Practical Clinical Approach to Evaluation and Management of Ambulatory Hypertensive Patients

Future Perspectives

Acknowledgment

Treatment of Hypertension

References

References

48 Lipoprotein Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease

Lipoprotein Disorders

Pharmacologic Management of Lipid Risk (Tables 48.8 and 48.9)

Clinical Approach to Treatment of Lipoprotein Disorders

Future Perspectives

Lipid Management

References

References

49 Nutrition and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

Foods

Beverages

Macronutrients

Micronutrients

Energy Balance

Dietary Patterns

Changing Behavior

References

50 Obesity and Cardiometabolic Disease

Epidemiology

Visceral Obesity

Clinical Management

Severe Obesity and Bariatric Surgery

Summary and Perspectives

References

51 Diabetes and the Cardiovascular System

Scope of the Problem

Coronary Heart Disease in the Patient With Diabetes

Heart Failure in the Patient With Diabetes

Summary and Future Perspectives

Diabetes and Heart Disease

References

References

52 Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

Composition of Air Pollution

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality

Cardiovascular Effects of Air Pollution

Pathophysiology

Occupational Exposures

Management and Intervention

References

53 Exercise and Sports Cardiology

Historical Perspective

Cardiovascular Response to Exercise and Exercise Training

Effects of Habitual Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Risk

Cardiovascular Risks of Exercise

Approach to Common Clinical Problems in Sports Cardiology

Determining Athletic Eligibility

Emerging Issues in the Cardiac Care of Athletes

Conclusion

References

54 Exercise-Based, Comprehensive Cardiac Rehabilitation

Historical Perspective

Basic Principles of Exercise Physiology and Training

Effects of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Training on Morbidity and Mortality

Practical Aspects of Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs

Other Components of Comprehensive Cardiac Rehabilitation

Insurance Coverage

Current Challenges

Future Perspectives

References

55 Integrative Approaches to the Management of Patients with Heart Disease

Integrative Cardiology

Integrative Strategies for Specific Cardiac Conditions

Conclusion

References

Volume 2

Part VII Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

56 Approach to the Patient with Chest Pain

Causes of Acute Chest Pain

Diagnostic Considerations

Immediate Management

References

57 Coronary Blood Flow and Myocardial Ischemia

Control of Coronary Blood Flow

Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Artery Stenoses

Coronary Collateral Circulation

Metabolic and Functional Consequences of Ischemia

Future Perspectives

Classic References

References

58 ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Changing Patterns in Incidence and Care

Improvements in Outcome

Pathologic Findings

Pathophysiology

Clinical Features

Future Perspectives

References

59 ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Prehospital Management

Management in the Emergency Department

Reperfusion Therapy

Hospital Management

Hemodynamic Disturbances

Arrhythmias

Other Complications

Convalescence, Discharge, and Post?Myocardial Infarction Care

Future Perspectives and Emerging Therapies

Acknowledgment

Management of Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

References

References

60 Non?ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Clinical Assessment

Management

Subgroups of Special Interest

Future Perspectives

Non?ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes

References

References

61 Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

Magnitude of the Problem

Stable Angina Pectoris

Evaluation and Management

Other Manifestations of Coronary Artery Disease

Future Perspectives

Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

References

References

62 Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Indications

Vascular Access

Coronary Devices

Antiplatelet Agents

Antithrombin Agents

Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Future Perspectives

Acknowledgment

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

References

References

63 Diseases of the Aorta

The Normal Aorta

Aortic Aneurysms

Aortic Dissection

Aortic Dissection Variants

Aortoarteritis Syndromes

Primary Tumors of the Aorta

Future Perspectives

Diseases of the Aorta

References

References

64 Peripheral Artery Diseases

Epidemiology

Clinical Features

Testing for Peripheral Artery Disease

Prognosis

Treatment

Treatment of Symptoms and Prevention of Limb Vascular Events

Vasculitis

Thromboangiitis Obliterans

Takayasu Arteritis and Giant Cell Arteritis

Fibromuscular Dysplasia

Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

Acute Limb Ischemia

Atheroembolism

Peripheral Artery Diseases

Acknowledgement

References

65 Prevention and Management of Ischemic Stroke

Medical Therapy for Prevention of Stroke

Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Future Perspectives

References

66 Treatment of Noncoronary Obstructive Vascular Disease

Approach to the Patient With Peripheral Artery Disease

Endovascular Technologies

Planning an Intervention

Endovascular Treatment of Arterial Disease

Endovascular Treatment of Venous Disease

Future Perspectives

References

Part VIII Diseases of the Heart Valves

67 Approach to the Patient with Valvular Heart Disease

The Heart Valve Clinic

Physical Examination

Diagnostic Testing

References

68 Aortic Valve Disease

Aortic Stenosis

Aortic Regurgitation

Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease

Classic References

References

69 Mitral Valve Disease

Mitral Stenosis

Mitral Regurgitation

References

70 Tricuspid, Pulmonic, and Multivalvular Disease

Tricuspid Stenosis

Tricuspid Regurgitation

Pulmonic Stenosis

Pulmonic Regurgitation

Multivalvular Disease

References

71 Prosthetic Heart Valves

Types of Prosthetic Heart Valves

Choice of Valve Replacement Procedure and Prosthesis

Medical Management and Surveillance After Valve Replacement

Evaluation and Treatment of Prosthetic Valve Dysfunction and Complications

Classic Reference

References

72 Transcatheter Therapies for Valvular Heart Disease

Aortic Stenosis (See Chapter 68)

Mitral Stenosis (See Chapter 69)

Mitral Regurgitation

Tricuspid Regurgitation

Conclusion

Management of Valvular Heart Disease

References

Classic References

References

73 Cardiovascular Infections

Infective Endocarditis

Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections

Infective Endocarditis

References

Classic References

References

74 Rheumatic Fever

Epidemiology

Pathogenesis

Clinical Features

Diagnosis

Treatment

Future Perspectives

Classic References

References

Part IX Diseases of the Myocardium, Pericardium, and Pulmonary Vasculature Bed

75 Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult and Pediatric Patient

General Considerations

Anatomy

Pathologic Consequences of Congenital Cardiac Lesions

Evaluation of the Patient With Congenital Heart Disease

Specific Cardiac Defects

References

76 Catheter-Based Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

Valvular Interventions

Arterial Interventions

Septal Interventions

Future Perspectives

Acknowledgment

References

77 The Dilated, Restrictive, and Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies

The Dilated Cardiomyopathies

Restrictive and Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies

Future Perspectives

References

78 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Definition, Prevalence, and Nomenclature

Morphologic Findings and the Role of Cardiac Imaging

Pathophysiology

Clinical Features

Clinical Course

Management

Athlete's Heart

Future Perspectives

Classic References

References

Athlete's Heart and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

79 Myocarditis

Overview and Definition

Epidemiology

Specific Etiologic Agents

Additional Physical Agents That Cause Myocarditis

Pathogenesis

Micro RNAs in Myocarditis

The Role of Innate Immunity in Myocarditis

Clinical Syndromes

Specific Clinical Presentations of Myocarditis

Diagnostic Approaches

Prognosis

Treatment

Future Perspectives

References

80 Cardiomyopathies Induced by Drugs or Toxins

Ethanol

Cocaine

Amphetamines

Cathinones

Synthetic Cannabinoids

Ma Huang (Ephedra)

Catecholamines and Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists

Inhalants

Antiretroviral Agents

Serotonin Agonists

Chemotherapeutic Agents

Environmental Exposures

Future Directions

References

81 Cardio-Oncology

Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Pathophysiology of Cancer Therapy Cardiotoxicity

Targeted Therapies

Radiation Therapy

Cardiovascular Care of the Cancer Patient

Future Perspectives

References

Sunitinib Cardiotoxicity

Care of Cancer Survivors

82 Cardiovascular Abnormalities in HIV-Infected Individuals

Cardiovascular Risk Factors in HIV Patients

Atherosclerosis in HIV Patients

Coronary Disease in HIV Patients

Screening for Coronary Risk Factors in HIV Patients

Other Cardiovascular Conditions in HIV Patients

Future Perspectives

References

83 Pericardial Diseases

Anatomy and Physiology of the Pericardium

Acute Pericarditis

Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade

Constrictive Pericarditis

Effusive-Constrictive Pericarditis

Specific Etiologies of Pericardial Disease

References

84 Pulmonary Embolism

State-of-the-Art Findings in Pulmonary Embolism

Molecular Pathophysiology

Cardiopulmonary Dynamics

Classification of Pulmonary Embolism

Classification of Deep Vein Thrombosis

Epidemiology

Diagnosis

Anticoagulation Therapy for Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Optimal Duration of Anticoagulation Therapy and Selection of an Optimal Anticoagulant

Advanced Therapy (in Addition to Anticoagulation) for Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Prevention

Future Perspectives

References

85 Pulmonary Hypertension

Definition

Genetics

Hemodynamics

Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension Registries

Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

Classic References

References

Collaborative Care of the Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patient

Targeted Medical Therapy After Pulmonary Endarterectomy

Systemic Disorders Causing Type 5 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

86 Chronic Lung Diseases and Cardiovascular Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Interstitial Lung Disease

Bronchial Asthma

Cystic Fibrosis

Lung Transplantation

Future Perspectives

References

87 Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Cardiac Disease

Definitions

Pathophysiology

Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension

Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Coronary Heart Disease

Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Cardiac Function, and Heart Failure

Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Cardiac Arrhythmias

Future Perspectives

References

Part X Cardiovascular Disease in Special Populations

88 Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly

What Is Aging?

Age-Associated Changes in Cardiovascular Structure and Function

Geriatric Domains Pertinent to Cardiovascular CARE

Aging and Specific Cardiovascular Conditions

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Older Persons

Noncardiac Surgery and Perioperative Management Considerations in Older Adults

Distinctive Precepts of Patient-Centered CARE in Relation to Old Age

Geroscience: Stopping the Aging Clock

References

89 Cardiovascular Disease in Women

Sex, Gender, and Genetic Differences in Cardiovascular Disease

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Women ( )

Assessment of Risks for Cardiovascular Disease in Women ( )

Specific Cardiovascular Diseases in WOMEN

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women ()

Acknowledgments

References

90 Pregnancy and Heart Disease

Hemodynamic Changes of Pregnancy

Preconception Counseling

Evaluation and Testing During Pregnancy

General Management Principles During Pregnancy

Specific Cardiac Conditions in Pregnancy

Contraception

Future Perspectives

Pregnancy and Heart Disease

References

References

91 Cardiovascular Disease in Heterogeneous Populations

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Heterogeneous Populations

Cardiovascular Disease Management

Potential for Emerging Scientific Research to Address Group Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease

Acknowledgments

References

Part XI Cardiovascular Disease and Disorders of other Organs

92 Endocrine Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease

Pituitary Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease

Adrenal Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease

Parathyroid Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease

Thyroid Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease

Future Perspectives

References*

93 Hemostasis, Thrombosis, Fibrinolysis, and Cardiovascular Disease

Hemostatic System

Thrombosis

Treatment of Thrombosis

Future Perspectives

References

94 Rheumatic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System

Atherosclerosis

Vasculitides

Pericarditis and Myocarditis

Valvular Heart Disease

Cardiac Conduction Disturbances

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Thrombosis in Rheumatic Diseases

Antirheumatic Drugs and Cardiovascular Disease

Future Perspectives

References

95 Tumors Affecting the Cardiovascular System

Clinical Manifestations of Cardiac Tumors

Benign Primary Cardiac Tumors

Malignant Primary Cardiac Tumors

Secondary Cardiac Tumors

Direct and Indirect Complications of Neoplasia

Future Perspectives

References

96 Psychiatric and Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease

Acute Stress

Chronic Stress

Mental Health and Psychiatric Disorders

Personality Traits

Evaluation and Management of Mental Health in the Cardiac Patient ( )

References

97 Neurologic Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease

The Muscular Dystrophies

Friedreich Ataxia

Less Common Neuromuscular Diseases Associated With Cardiac Manifestations

Epilepsy

Acute Cerebrovascular Disease

Future Perspectives

References

98 Interface Between Renal Disease and Cardiovascular Illness

The Cardiorenal Intersection

Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

Cardiac Surgery and Acute Kidney Injury

Acceleration of Vascular Calcification

Renal Disease and Hypertension

Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Cardiorenal Syndromes

Chronic Kidney Disease and Valvular Heart Disease

Renal Function and Arrhythmias

Consultative Approach to Severe Kidney Disease and Hemodialysis Patients

Evaluation and Management of the Renal Transplant Recipient

Future Perspectives

References

99 Cardiovascular Manifestations of Autonomic Disorders

Overview of Autonomic Circulatory Control

Autonomic Testing

Autonomic Disorders

Disorders of Increased Sympathetic Outflow

Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Disclosure Index

Relationship Codes

Institution and Company Codes

Contributors

Index