Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Dedication

Contributing Authors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Sections

Part I: Brain

SECTION 1: PATHOLOGY-BASED DIAGNOSES

CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS

Chapter 1: Approach to Brain Malformations

HINDBRAIN MALFORMATIONS

Chapter 2: Dandy-Walker Continuum

Chapter 3: Rhombencephalosynapsis

Chapter 4: Unclassified Cerebellar Dysplasias

Chapter 5: Molar Tooth Malformations (Joubert)

Chapter 6: Cerebellar Dysplastic Gangliocytoma

Chapter 7: Cerebellar Hypoplasia

DISORDERS OF DIVERTICULATION/CLEAVAGE

Chapter 8: Holoprosencephaly

Chapter 9: Syntelencephaly (Middle Interhemispheric Variant)

Chapter 10: Septo-Optic Dysplasia

Chapter 11: Commissural Abnormalities

MALFORMATIONS OF CORTICAL DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 12: Congenital Microcephaly

Chapter 13: Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

Chapter 14: Heterotopic Gray Matter

Chapter 15: Polymicrogyria

Chapter 16: Focal Cortical Dysplasia

Chapter 17: Lissencephaly

Chapter 18: Schizencephaly

Chapter 19: Hemimegalencephaly

Chapter 20: DNET

FAMILIAL TUMOR/NEUROCUTANEOUS SYNDROMES

Chapter 21: Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Brain

Chapter 22: Neurofibromatosis Type 2, Brain

Chapter 23: von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome

Chapter 24: Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Chapter 25: Sturge-Weber Syndrome

Chapter 26: Meningioangiomatosis

Chapter 27: Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

Chapter 28: Neurocutaneous Melanosis

Chapter 29: Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

Chapter 30: Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis

TRAUMA

Chapter 31: Neonatal Subpial Hemorrhage

Chapter 32: Epidural Hematoma, Classic

Chapter 33: Acute Subdural Hematoma

Chapter 34: Evolving Subdural Hematoma

Chapter 35: Cerebral Contusion

Chapter 36: Diffuse Axonal Injury

Chapter 37: Subcortical Injury

Chapter 38: Abusive Head Trauma

STROKE

Chapter 39: Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage

Chapter 40: Hydranencephaly

Chapter 41: White Matter Injury of Prematurity

Chapter 42: Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

Chapter 43: Childhood Stroke

Chapter 44: Sickle Cell Disease, Brain

Chapter 45: Moyamoya

VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS: CVMS WITH AV SHUNTING

Chapter 46: Arteriovenous Malformation

Chapter 47: Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

Chapter 48: Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation

CVMS WITHOUT AV SHUNTING

Chapter 49: Developmental Venous Anomaly

Chapter 50: Sinus Pericranii

Chapter 51: Cavernous Malformation

Chapter 52: Capillary Telangiectasia

NEOPLASMS: ASTROCYTIC TUMORS

Chapter 53: Pilocytic Astrocytoma

Chapter 54: Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma

Chapter 55: Anaplastic Astrocytoma

Chapter 56: Glioblastoma

Chapter 57: Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

Chapter 58: Brainstem Tumors

Chapter 59: Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

Chapter 60: Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma

EPENDYMAL TUMORS

Chapter 61: Supratentorial Ependymoma

Chapter 62: Infratentorial Ependymoma

Chapter 63: Embryonal Tumors With Multilayered Rosettes

CHOROID PLEXUS TUMORS

Chapter 64: Choroid Plexus Papilloma

Chapter 65: Choroid Plexus Carcinoma

NEURONAL AND MIXED NEURONALGLIAL TUMORS

Chapter 66: Ganglioglioma

Chapter 67: Desmoplastic Infantile Tumors

PINEAL PARENCHYMAL TUMORS

Chapter 68: Pineoblastoma

EMBRYONAL AND NEUROBLASTIC TUMORS

Chapter 69: Medulloblastoma

Chapter 70: Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

Chapter 71: Metastatic Neuroblastoma

HISTIOCYTIC AND HEMATOPOETIC TUMORS

Chapter 72: Leukemia

Chapter 73: Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, Skull and Brain

GERM CELL TUMORS

Chapter 74: Germinoma

Chapter 75: Teratoma

NONNEOPLASTIC CYSTS AND TUMOR MIMICS

Chapter 76: Arachnoid Cyst

Chapter 77: Dermoid Cyst

Chapter 78: Epidermoid Cyst

Chapter 79: Neuroglial Cyst

Chapter 80: Enlarged Perivascular Spaces

Chapter 81: Pineal Cyst

Chapter 82: Choroid Plexus Cyst

Chapter 83: Ependymal Cyst

Chapter 84: Porencephalic Cyst

Chapter 85: Neurenteric Cyst

Chapter 86: Lipoma

INFECTIOUS, INFLAMMATORY, AND DEMYELINATING DISEASE: CONGENITAL/NEONATAL INFECTIONS

Chapter 87: Congenital CMV

Chapter 88: Congenital HIV

Chapter 89: Neonatal Herpes Encephalitis

Chapter 90: Group B Streptococcal Meningitis

Chapter 91: Citrobacter Meningitis

ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

Chapter 92: Abscess, Brain

Chapter 93: Ventriculitis

Chapter 94: Empyema

Chapter 95: Herpes Encephalitis Type 1

Chapter 96: Miscellaneous Encephalitis

Chapter 97: Rasmussen Encephalitis

Chapter 98: Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

Chapter 99: Tuberculosis

Chapter 100: Neurocysticercosis

Chapter 101: Miscellaneous Parasites

INFLAMMATORY AND DEMYELINATING DISEASE

Chapter 102: Multiple Sclerosis

Chapter 103: ADEM

INHERITED METABOLIC/DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

Chapter 104: Approach to Normal Brain Development and Metabolic Disorders

NORMAL VARIANTS

Chapter 105: Hypomyelination

MITOCHONDRIAL DISORDERS

Chapter 106: MELAS

Chapter 107: Mitochondrial Encephalopathies

LYSOSOMAL DISORDERS

Chapter 108: Mucopolysaccharidoses

Chapter 109: Gangliosidosis (GM2)

Chapter 110: Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

Chapter 111: Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy

PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

Chapter 112: Zellweger Syndrome and Peroxisomal Biogenesis Disorders

Chapter 113: X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

ORGANIC AND AMINOACIDOPATHIES

Chapter 114: Maple Syrup Urine Disease

Chapter 115: Urea Cycle Disorders

Chapter 116: Glutaric Aciduria Type 1

Chapter 117: Canavan Disease

Chapter 118: Alexander Disease

MISCELLANEOUS

Chapter 119: Megalencephaly With Leukoencephalopathy and Cysts

Chapter 120: Vanishing White Matter

Chapter 121: X-Linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth

Chapter 122: PKAN

Chapter 123: Huntington Disease

Chapter 124: Wilson Disease

ACQUIRED TOXIC/METABOLIC/DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

Chapter 125: Hypoglycemia

Chapter 126: Kernicterus

Chapter 127: Acute Hypertensive Encephalopathy, PRES

Chapter 128: Mesial Temporal Sclerosis

Chapter 129: Cerebellitis

SECTION 2: ANATOMY-BASED DIAGNOSES

VENTRICLES AND CISTERNS

Chapter 130: Approach to Ventricular Anatomy and Imaging Issues

Chapter 131: Cavum Septi Pellucidi

Chapter 132: Cavum Velum Interpositum

Chapter 133: Benign Enlarged Subarachnoid Spaces

Chapter 134: Hydrocephalus

Chapter 135: Aqueductal Stenosis

Chapter 136: CSF Shunts and Complications

SELLA AND PITUITARY

Chapter 137: Approach to Pituitary Development

Chapter 138: Pituitary Anomalies

Chapter 139: Craniopharyngioma

Chapter 140: Hypothalamic Hamartoma

SKULL, SCALP, AND MENINGES: CONGENITAL

Chapter 141: Congenital Calvarial Defects

Chapter 142: Craniosynostoses

Chapter 143: Cephalocele

Chapter 144: Atretic Cephalocele

TRAUMA

Chapter 145: Calvarial Fracture

Chapter 146: Intracranial Hypotension

NONNEOPLASTIC AND TUMOR-LIKE DISORDERS

Chapter 147: Fibrous Dysplasia

Chapter 148: Extramedullary Hematopoiesis

Chapter 149: Thick Skull

Part II: Head and Neck

SECTION 1: TEMPORAL BONE AND SKULL BASE

Chapter 150: Classification of Inner Ear Malformations

Chapter 151: Labyrinthine Aplasia

Chapter 152: Oval Window Atresia

Chapter 153: Cochlear Aplasia

Chapter 154: Cochlear Hypoplasia

Chapter 155: Cochlear Nerve and Cochlear Nerve Canal Aplasia-Hypoplasia

Chapter 156: X-Linked Stapes Gusher (DFNX2)

Chapter 157: Common Cavity Malformation

Chapter 158: Cystic Cochleovestibular Malformation

Chapter 159: Large Vestibular Aqueduct

Chapter 160: Semicircular Canal Hypoplasia-Aplasia

Chapter 161: Endolymphatic Sac Tumor

Chapter 162: Dermoid and Epidermoid Cysts

Chapter 163: CPA-IAC Arachnoid Cyst

Chapter 164: Congenital Cholesteatoma

Chapter 165: Acquired Cholesteatoma

Chapter 166: Skull Base Chondrosarcoma

SECTION 2: ORBIT, NOSE, AND SINUSES

Chapter 167: Nasal Glioma

Chapter 168: Frontoethmoidal Cephalocele

Chapter 169: Nasal Dermal Sinus

Chapter 170: Choanal Atresia

Chapter 171: Congenital Nasal Pyriform Aperture Stenosis

Chapter 172: Juvenile Angiofibroma

Chapter 173: Anophthalmia/Microphthalmia

Chapter 174: Macrophthalmia

Chapter 175: Coloboma

Chapter 176: Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele

Chapter 177: Orbital Dermoid and Epidermoid

Chapter 178: Orbital Cellulitis

Chapter 179: Orbital Vascular Malformations

Chapter 180: Orbital Infantile Hemangioma

Chapter 181: Retinoblastoma

SECTION 3: SUPRAHYOID AND INFRAHYOID NECK

Chapter 182: Approach to Congenital Lesions of Neck

Chapter 183: Lingual Thyroid

Chapter 184: Oral Cavity Dermoid and Epidermoid

Chapter 185: Reactive Lymph Nodes

Chapter 186: Suppurative Adenitis

SECTION 4: MULTIPLE REGIONS, HEAD AND NECK

Chapter 187: 1st Branchial Cleft Cyst

Chapter 188: 2nd Branchial Cleft Cyst

Chapter 189: 3rd Branchial Cleft Cyst

Chapter 190: 4th Branchial Cleft Cyst

Chapter 191: Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

Chapter 192: Cervical Thymic Cyst

Chapter 193: Venous Malformation

Chapter 194: Lymphatic Malformation, Cervical

Chapter 195: Infantile Hemangioma

Chapter 196: Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Head and Neck

Chapter 197: Brachial Plexus Schwannoma in Perivertebral Space

Chapter 198: Fibromatosis Colli

Chapter 199: Rhabdomyosarcoma

Chapter 200: Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumors

Chapter 201: Orbital Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Part III: Spine

SECTION 1: CONGENITAL AND GENETIC DISORDERS

CONGENITAL: NORMAL ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS

Chapter 202: Filum Terminale Fibrolipoma

Chapter 203: Ventriculus Terminalis

CHIARI DISORDERS

Chapter 204: Chiari 1 Malformation

Chapter 205: Chiari 2 Malformation

Chapter 206: Chiari 3 Malformation

ABNORMALITIES OF NEURULATION

Chapter 207: Approach to Spine and Spinal Cord Development

Chapter 208: Myelomeningocele

Chapter 209: Lipomyelomeningocele

Chapter 210: Dorsal Dermal Sinus

Chapter 211: Dermoid Cyst

Chapter 212: Epidermoid Cyst

ANOMALIES OF CAUDAL CELL MESS

Chapter 213: Tethered Spinal Cord

Chapter 214: Segmental Spinal Dysgenesis

Chapter 215: Caudal Regression Syndrome

Chapter 216: Myelocystocele

Chapter 217: Anterior Sacral Meningocele

Chapter 218: Sacral Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

Chapter 219: Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

ANOMALIES OF NOTOCHORD AND VERTEBRAL FORMATION

Chapter 220: Craniovertebral Junction Variants

Chapter 221: Klippel-Feil Spectrum

Chapter 222: Failure of Vertebral Formation

Chapter 223: Vertebral Segmentation Failure

Chapter 224: Partial Vertebral Duplication

Chapter 225: Diastematomyelia

Chapter 226: Incomplete Fusion, Posterior Element

Chapter 227: Neurenteric Cyst

DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES

Chapter 228: Lateral Meningocele

Chapter 229: Dorsal Spinal Meningocele

Chapter 230: Dural Dysplasia

GENETIC DISORDERS

Chapter 231: Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Chapter 232: Neurofibromatosis Type 2

Chapter 233: Achondroplasia

Chapter 234: Mucopolysaccharidoses

Chapter 235: Sickle Cell Disease

Chapter 236: Osteogenesis Imperfecta

SCOLIOSIS AND KYPHOSIS

Chapter 237: Developmental Spinal Stenosis

Chapter 238: Neuromuscular Scoliosis

Chapter 239: Idiopathic Scoliosis

Chapter 240: Idiopathic Kyphosis

SECTION 2: TRAUMA

Chapter 241: Apophyseal Ring Fracture

SECTION 3: DEVELOPMENTAL AND DEGENERATIVE DISEASES

Chapter 242: Schmorl Node

Chapter 243: Scheuermann Disease

Chapter 244: Congenital Scoliosis and Kyphosis

Chapter 245: Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

SECTION 4: INFECTION AND INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS

INFECTIONS

Chapter 246: Pyogenic Osteomyelitis

Chapter 247: Tuberculous Osteomyelitis

INFLAMMATORY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS

Chapter 248: Idiopathic Acute Transverse Myelitis

Chapter 249: Neuromyelitis Optica

Chapter 250: ADEM

Chapter 251: Guillain-Barr� Syndrome

Chapter 252: Acute Flaccid Myelitis

SECTION 5: NEOPLASMS, CYSTS, AND OTHER MASSES

NEOPLASMS: EXTRADURAL SPACE

Chapter 253: Osteoid Osteoma

Chapter 254: Osteoblastoma

Chapter 255: Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

Chapter 256: Osteochondroma

Chapter 257: Osteosarcoma

Chapter 258: Chordoma

Chapter 259: Ewing Sarcoma

Chapter 260: Leukemia, Spine

Chapter 261: Neuroblastic Tumors

Chapter 262: Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Chapter 263: Angiolipoma

INTRADURAL EXTRAMEDULLARY SPACE

Chapter 264: Spinal Lipoma

Chapter 265: CSF Disseminated Metastases

Chapter 266: Myxopapillary Ependymoma

INTRAMEDULLARY SPACE

Chapter 267: Astrocytoma

Chapter 268: Cellular Ependymoma

NONNEOPLASTIC CYSTS AND TUMOR MIMICS

Chapter 269: Syringomyelia

Chapter 270: Epidural Lipomatosis

Chapter 271: Extramedullary Hematopoiesis

SECTION 6: SPINE POSTPROCEDURAL IMAGING

Chapter 272: Hardware Failure

INDEX