Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Dedication

Preface

Biography

Video Contents

Contributors

Part 1: Perspectives and Evolution in Techniques

1: Endoscopic Orbital Surgery: The Rhinologist’s Perspective

Abstract

Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy

Endoscopic Orbital Decompression

Endoscopic Optic Nerve Decompression

Endoscopic Resection of Orbital Tumors

Future Directions

Conclusion

2: Endoscopic Orbital Surgery: The Ophthalmologists’ Perspective: Formation of the Ophthalmology-Otolaryngology Team

Abstract

3: Endoscopic Orbital Surgery: The Neurosurgeon’s Perspective

Abstract

Transorbital Approaches

Conclusion

Part 2: Evaluation, Anatomy, and Imaging

4: Surgical Anatomy of the Orbit, Including the Intraconal Space

Abstract

Anatomy of the Orbit

5: Surgical Anatomy of the Nose, Septum, and Sinuses

Abstract

Surgical Anatomy and Principles Relevant to the Orbital Surgeon

Evaluation

Imaging

Conclusion

6: Rhinologic Evaluation in Orbital and Lacrimal Disease

Abstract

Sinonasal Examination

Lacrimal Disease

Orbital Disease

Summary

7: Ophthalmologic Evaluation in Orbital and Lacrimal Disease

Abstract

History

Medical History, Medications, and Allergies

Ophthalmic Examination

Other Tests

Summary

8: Neuro-Ophthalmologic Evaluation and Testing

Abstract

Techniques for Assessing Visual Function

9: Radiologic Evaluation of the Orbit: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Abstract

Anatomy

Imaging Considerations

Computed Tomography

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Protocols

Conclusion

10: Optimizing Visualization and Localization During Endoscopic Orbital Surgery

Abstract

Surgical Technique

Handling of Bleeding During Surgery to Improve Visualisation

Adjuncts for Intraorbital Tumor Dissection

Dealing With Extraconal Muscles

Part 3: Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction and Endoscopic-DCR

11: Evaluation and Management of Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

Abstract

Epidemiology and Risk Factors

Pathophysiology

Diagnosis

Management

Conclusion

12: Evaluation and Management of Acquired Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

Abstract

Etiology

Evaluation

Diagnostic Tests

Imaging

Management

13: Endoscopic Dacrocystorhinostomy

Abstract

Workup

Indications

Operative Setup

Surgical Procedure

Postoperative Care and Considerations

Risks and Benefits

Sacks’ Six Causes of Failure

14: Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy With Mucosal Flaps

Abstract

Preoperative Assessment

Imaging: Dacrocystogram and Lacrimal Scintillography

Surgical Technique

Results of Powered Dacryocystorhinostomy

Key Points

15: Revision Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy and Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy

Abstract

Causes of Dacryocystorhinostomy Failure

Indications for Revision Surgery

Surgical Technique

Additional Considerations

Postoperative Care

Outcomes

Complications

Conclusion

16: Endoscopic Management of Pediatric Nasolacrimal Obstruction

Abstract

Simple Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

Complex Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

Dacryocele/Dacryocystocele, and Dacryocystitis

Technique of Nasal Endoscopic-Assisted Probing and Irrigation

Summary

17: Outcomes of Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy: Enhancing the Patency of the Rhinostomy

Abstract

Outcomes of Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy

Nasolacrimal Stent Type

Nasolacrimal Stent Timing

Topical Mitomycin C

Anti-Inflammatory Medications

Conclusion

Part 4: Endoscopic Orbital and Optic Nerve Decompression

18: Thyroid Eye Disease

Abstract

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Modifiable Risk Factors

Diagnosis and Clinical Workup

Differential Diagnosis

Classification and Disease Activity

Management of Thyroid Eye Disease

Considerations in Thyroid Eye Disease Optic Neuropathy

Conclusions

19: Surgical Indications and Outcomes of Orbital Decompression Surgery

Abstract

Surgical Indications

Surgical Contraindications

Patient Selection

Outcomes

Pearls

20: Endoscopic Orbital Decompression

Abstract

Anatomy

Technique

Complications

21: Endoscopic Optic Nerve Decompression: Intracanalicular Portion

Abstract

The Evolution of Optic Nerve Decompression

Anatomy

Pathology Involving the Optic Nerve: Indications and Contraindications for Decompression

Preoperative Considerations

Pearls and Potential Pitfalls

Surgical Technique

Postoperative Complications, Considerations, and Management

22: Complications in Endoscopic Orbital Surgery

Abstract

Immediate/Early Complications

Late Complications

Preventing Complications

Conclusions

23: Postoperative Care of the Endoscopic Orbital Decompression Patient

Abstract

Perioperative

Follow-up

Conclusion

Part 5: Endoscopic Intraorbital Surgery and Tumor Resection

24: Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Orbit and Skull Base in the Coronal Plane

Abstract

Anatomy

Indications

Technique

Case Example

Complications

Conclusions

25: Intraorbital Pathology (Tumors) and Management Strategies

Abstract

Lymphoproliferative Tumors

Histiocytic Tumors

Lacrimal Gland Tumors

Neurogenic Tumors

Vascular Tumors and Malformations

Fibrous Connective Tissue Tumors

Myogenic Tumors

Orbital Cystic Lesions

Lipomatous Tumors

Metastatic Tumors

26: Orbital Apex Surgery and Tumor Removal

Abstract

Preoperative Considerations

Endoscopic Transnasal Approach to the Orbital Apex

Transorbital Endoscopic-Assisted Approach

Complications of Endoscopic Orbital Surgery

27: Management of Intraconal Hemangioma: Techniques and Outcomes

Abstract

Epidemiology and Etiology

Anatomic Location and Characteristics

Clinical Presentation and Investigations

Management

Endoscopic Orbital Cavernous Hemangioma Outcomes

Conclusion

28: Fibro-Osseous Lesions of the Orbit and Optic Canal

Abstract

Benign Fibro-Osseous Lesions

Conclusion

29: Endoscopic Orbital Exenteration

Abstract

Examining Indications for Endoscopic-Assisted Orbital Exenteration

Preoperative Assessment

Endoscopic-Assisted Orbital Exenteration: Surgical Technique

Part 6: Transorbital Techniques

30: Endoscopic Subperiosteal Abscess Drainage

Abstract

Clinical Presentation

Management

Surgical Management

Conclusion

31: Transorbital Techniques to Frontal Sinus Diseases

Abstract

Surgical Technique

Management of Selected Targeted Disease

Postoperative Management

32: Endoscopic Management of Mucoceles With Significant Orbital Involvement

Abstract

Patient Demographics, Clinical Presentation, and Preoperative Workup

Approaches

Complications and Pitfalls

Conclusion

33: Endoscopic Orbital Fracture Repair

Abstract

Medial Orbital Wall Fractures

The Milan Approach to Medial Wall Orbital Fractures

Endoscopic Assistance for Complex Fractures or Management of Complications of Previous Conventional Fracture Treatment

Part 7: Intracranial/Skull Base Surgery and the Optic Apparatus

34: Surgical Anatomy of the Optic Nerves and Chiasm

Abstract

Surgical Anatomy

Conclusion

35: Transcranial Approaches to the Optic Apparatus

Abstract

Choice of Approach: Supraorbital Versus Minipterional Versus Endonasal Versus Conventional Craniotomy

Use of Supraorbital and Minipterional Approaches

Nuances of Endoscopy and Endoscope-Assisted Transcranial Tumor Removal

Surgical Technique: General Room Setup and Essential Instrumentation for Keyhole Surgery in the Optic Apparatus Region

Case Examples

Case Example

Authors’ Experience

Conclusion

36: Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Optic Apparatus: Technique and Pathology

Abstract

Pathology

Clinical Features

Surgical Treatment

Postoperative Management

Postoperative Complications

Visual Outcomes

Advantages of the Endoscopic Endonasal Approach

Limitations of the Endoscopic Endonasal Approach

37: Reconstructive Techniques in Endoscopic Skull Base and Orbital Surgery

Abstract

Pre-Reconstruction Considerations

The Reconstructive Ladder

Special Considerations for Reconstruction of the Orbit

Outcomes

Conclusion

38: Transorbital Endoscopic and Neuroendoscopic Surgery

Abstract

Indications and Contraindications

Surgical Planning

Surgical Technique

Postoperative Care

Outcomes and Safety

Conclusion

39: Complications in Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery

Abstract

Minor Complications in Skull Base Surgery

Orbital Complications

Conclusion

40: Neuromonitoring in Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery

Abstract

Introduction

Neuromonitoring Modalities

Extraocular Muscle Monitoring

Case Example #1

Case Example #2

Case Example #3

Conclusion

Index