Contents

Contributors

Preface

PART 1 The Profession of Medicine

1 The Practice of Medicine

The Editors

2 Promoting Good Health

Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Kathleen M. McKibbin

3 Decision-Making in Clinical Medicine

Daniel B. Mark, John B. Wong

4 Screening and Prevention of Disease

Katrina A. Armstrong, Gary J. Martin

5 Health Care Systems in Developed Countries

Richard B. Saltman

6 The Safety and Quality of Health Care

David W. Bates

7 Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care

Joseph R. Betancourt, Alexander R. Green

8 Ethical Issues in Clinical Medicine

Bernard Lo, Christine Grady

9 Palliative and End-of-Life Care

Ezekiel J. Emanuel

PART 2 Cardinal Manifestations and Presentation of Diseases


SECTION 1 Pain

10 Pain: Pathophysiology and Management

James P. Rathmell, Howard L. Fields

11 Chest Discomfort

David A. Morrow

12 Abdominal Pain

Danny O. Jacobs

13 Headache

Peter J. Goadsby

14 Back and Neck Pain

John W. Engstrom


SECTION 2 Alterations in Body Temperature

15 Fever

Charles A. Dinarello, Reuven Porat

16 Fever and Rash

Elaine T. Kaye, Kenneth M. Kaye

17 Fever of Unknown Origin

Chantal P. Bleeker-Rovers, Jos W. M. van der Meer


SECTION 3 Nervous System Dysfunction

18 Syncope

Roy Freeman

19 Dizziness and Vertigo

Mark F. Walker, Robert B. Daroff

20 Fatigue

Jeffrey M. Gelfand, Vanja C. Douglas

21 Neurologic Causes of Weakness and Paralysis

Michael J. Aminoff

22 Numbness, Tingling, and Sensory Loss

Michael J. Aminoff

23 Gait Disorders, Imbalance, and Falls

Jessica M. Baker, Lewis R. Sudarsky

24 Confusion and Delirium

S. Andrew Josephson, Bruce L. Miller

25 Dementia

William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller

26 Aphasia, Memory Loss, Hemispatial Neglect, Frontal Syndromes, and Other Cerebral Disorders

M.-Marsel Mesulam

27 Sleep Disorders

Thomas E. Scammell, Clifford B. Saper, Charles A. Czeisler


SECTION 4 Disorders of Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

28 Disorders of the Eye

Jonathan C. Horton

29 Disorders of Smell and Taste

Richard L. Doty, Steven M. Bromley

30 Disorders of Hearing

Anil K. Lalwani

31 Sore Throat, Earache, and Upper Respiratory Symptoms

Michael A. Rubin, Larry C. Ford, Ralph Gonzales

32 Oral Manifestations of Disease

Samuel C. Durso


SECTION 5 Alterations in Circulatory and Respiratory Functions

33 Dyspnea

Rebecca M. Baron

34 Cough

Christopher H. Fanta

35 Hemoptysis

Anna K. Brady, Patricia A. Kritek

36 Hypoxia and Cyanosis

Joseph Loscalzo

37 Edema

Eugene Braunwald, Joseph Loscalzo

38 Approach to the Patient with a Heart Murmur

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

39 Palpitations

Joseph Loscalzo


SECTION 6 Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function

40 Dysphagia

Ikuo Hirano, Peter J. Kahrilas

41 Nausea, Vomiting, and Indigestion

William L. Hasler

42 Diarrhea and Constipation

Michael Camilleri, Joseph A. Murray

43 Unintentional Weight Loss

J. Larry Jameson

44 Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Loren Laine

45 Jaundice

Savio John, Daniel S. Pratt

46 Abdominal Swelling and Ascites

Kathleen E. Corey, Lawrence S. Friedman


SECTION 7 Alterations in Renal and Urinary Tract Function

47 Dysuria, Bladder Pain, and the Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

John W. Warren

48 Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities

David B. Mount

49 Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances

David B. Mount

50 Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcemia

Sundeep Khosla

51 Acidosis and Alkalosis

Thomas D. DuBose, Jr.


SECTION 8 Alterations in the Skin

52 Approach to the Patient with a Skin Disorder

Kim B. Yancey, Thomas J. Lawley

53 Eczema, Psoriasis, Cutaneous Infections, Acne, and Other Common Skin Disorders

Leslie P. Lawley, Calvin O. McCall, Thomas J. Lawley

54 Skin Manifestations of Internal Disease

Jean L. Bolognia, Irwin M. Braverman

55 Immunologically Mediated Skin Diseases

Kim B. Yancey, Thomas J. Lawley

56 Cutaneous Drug Reactions

Robert G. Micheletti, Misha Rosenbach, Bruce U. Wintroub, Kanade Shinkai

57 Photosensitivity and Other Reactions to Light

Alexander G. Marneros, David R. Bickers


SECTION 9 Hematologic Alterations

58 Interpreting Peripheral Blood Smears

Dan L. Longo

59 Anemia and Polycythemia

John W. Adamson, Dan L. Longo

60 Disorders of Granulocytes and Monocytes

Steven M. Holland, John I. Gallin

61 Bleeding and Thrombosis

Barbara A. Konkle

62 Enlargement of Lymph Nodes and Spleen

Dan L. Longo

PART 3 Pharmacology

63 Principles of Clinical Pharmacology

Dan M. Roden

64 Pharmacogenomics

Dan M. Roden

PART 4 Oncology and Hematology


SECTION 1 Neoplastic Disorders

65 Approach to the Patient with Cancer

Dan L. Longo

66 Prevention and Early Detection of Cancer

Jennifer M. Croswell, Otis W. Brawley, Barnett S. Kramer

67 Cancer Genetics

Fred Bunz, Bert Vogelstein

68 Cancer Cell Biology

Jeffrey W. Clark, Dan L. Longo

69 Principles of Cancer Treatment

Edward A. Sausville, Dan L. Longo

70 Infections in Patients with Cancer

Robert W. Finberg

71 Oncologic Emergencies

Rasim Gucalp, Janice P. Dutcher

72 Cancer of the Skin

Brendan D. Curti, Sancy Leachman, Walter J. Urba

73 Head and Neck Cancer

Everett E. Vokes

74 Neoplasms of the Lung

Leora Horn, Christine M. Lovly

75 Breast Cancer

Daniel F. Hayes, Marc E. Lippman

76 Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

Robert J. Mayer

77 Lower Gastrointestinal Cancers

Robert J. Mayer

78 Tumors of the Liver and Biliary Tree

Josep M. Llovet

79 Pancreatic Cancer

Daniel D. Von Hoff

80 Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Pancreas

Robert T. Jensen

81 Renal Cell Carcinoma

Robert J. Motzer

82 Cancer of the Bladder and Urinary Tract

Noah M. Hahn

83 Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Prostate

Howard I. Scher, James A. Eastham

84 Testicular Cancer

David J. Vaughn

85 Gynecologic Malignancies

David Spriggs

86 Primary and Metastatic Tumors of the Nervous System

Lisa M. DeAngelis, Patrick Y. Wen

87 Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcomas and Bone Metastases

Shreyaskumar R. Patel

88 Carcinoma of Unknown Primary

Gauri R. Varadhachary, James L. Abbruzzese

89 Paraneoplastic Syndromes: Endocrinologic/Hematologic

J. Larry Jameson, Dan L. Longo

90 Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes and Autoimmune Encephalitis

Josep Dalmau, Myrna R. Rosenfeld

91 Late Consequences of Cancer and Its Treatment

Carl E. Freter, Dan L. Longo


SECTION 2 Hematopoietic Disorders

92 Hematopoietic Stem Cells

David T. Scadden, Dan L. Longo

93 Iron Deficiency and Other Hypoproliferative Anemias

John W. Adamson

94 Disorders of Hemoglobin

Edward J. Benz, Jr.

95 Megaloblastic Anemias

A. Victor Hoffbrand

96 Hemolytic Anemias

Lucio Luzzatto

97 Anemia Due to Acute Blood Loss

Dan L. Longo

98 Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Including Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplasia

Neal S. Young

99 Polycythemia Vera and Other Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Jerry L. Spivak

100 Acute Myeloid Leukemia

William Blum, Clara D. Bloomfield

101 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Hagop Kantarjian, Jorge Cortes

102 Acute Lymphoid Leukemia

Dieter Hoelzer

103 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Jennifer A. Woyach, John C. Byrd

104 Non-Hodgkin?s Lymphoma

Caron A. Jacobson, Dan L. Longo

105 Hodgkin?s Lymphoma

Caron A. Jacobson, Dan L. Longo

106 Less Common Hematologic Malignancies

Ayalew Tefferi, Dan L. Longo

107 Plasma Cell Disorders

Nikhil C. Munshi, Dan L. Longo, Kenneth C. Anderson

108 Amyloidosis

John L. Berk, Vaishali Sanchorawala

109 Transfusion Biology and Therapy

Jeffery S. Dzieczkowski, Pierre Tiberghien, Kenneth C. Anderson

110 Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

Frederick R. Appelbaum


SECTION 3 Disorders of Hemostasis

111 Disorders of Platelets and Vessel Wall

Barbara A. Konkle

112 Coagulation Disorders

Valder R. Arruda, Katherine A. High

113 Arterial and Venous Thrombosis

Jane E. Freedman, Joseph Loscalzo

114 Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant, and Fibrinolytic Drugs

Jeffrey I. Weitz

PART 5 Infectious Diseases


SECTION 1 Basic Considerations in Infectious Diseases

115 Approach to the Patient with an Infectious Disease

Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper

116 Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis

Gerald B. Pier

117 Approach to the Acutely Ill Infected Febrile Patient

Tamar F. Barlam, Dennis L. Kasper

118 Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use

Nancy Messonnier, Anne Schuchat, Lisa A. Jackson

119 Health Recommendations for International Travel

Jay S. Keystone, Phyllis E. Kozarsky

120 Climate Change and Infectious Disease

Aaron S. Bernstein


SECTION 2 Clinical Syndromes: Community-Acquired Infections

121 Pneumonia

Lionel A. Mandell, Richard Wunderink

122 Lung Abscess

Rebecca M. Baron, Miriam Baron Barshak

123 Infective Endocarditis

Adolf W. Karchmer

124 Infections of the Skin, Muscles, and Soft Tissues

Dennis L. Stevens

125 Infectious Arthritis

Lawrence C. Madoff

126 Osteomyelitis

Werner Zimmerli

127 Intraabdominal Infections and Abscesses

Miriam Baron Barshak, Dennis L. Kasper

128 Acute Infectious Diarrheal Diseases and Bacterial Food Poisoning

Richelle C. Charles, Stephen B. Calderwood, Regina C. LaRocque

129 Clostridium difficile Infection, Including Pseudomembranous Colitis

Dale N. Gerding, Stuart Johnson

130 Urinary Tract Infections, Pyelonephritis, and Prostatitis

Kalpana Gupta, Barbara W. Trautner

131 Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Clinical Approach

Jeanne M. Marrazzo, King K. Holmes

132 Encephalitis

Karen L. Roos, Kenneth L. Tyler

133 Acute Meningitis

Karen L. Roos, Kenneth L. Tyler

134 Chronic and Recurrent Meningitis

Walter J. Koroshetz, Michael R. Wilson, Avindra Nath

135 Brain Abscess and Empyema

Karen L. Roos, Kenneth L. Tyler

136 Infectious Complications of Bites

Sandeep S. Jubbal, Florencia Pereyra, Lawrence C. Madoff


SECTION 3 Clinical Syndromes: Health Care?Associated Infections

137 Infections Acquired in Health Care Facilities

Robert A. Weinstein

138 Infections in Transplant Recipients

Robert W. Finberg, Joyce D. Fingeroth


SECTION 4 Therapy for Bacterial Diseases

139 Treatment and Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections

David C. Hooper, Erica S. Shenoy, Christy A. Varughese

140 Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents

David C. Hooper


SECTION 5 Diseases Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria

141 Pneumococcal Infections

David Goldblatt, Katherine L. O?Brien

142 Staphylococcal Infections

Franklin D. Lowy

143 Streptococcal Infections

Michael R. Wessels

144 Enterococcal Infections

Cesar A. Arias, Barbara E. Murray

145 Diphtheria and Other Corynebacterial Infections

William R. Bishai, John R. Murphy

146 Listeria monocytogenes Infections

Elizabeth L. Hohmann, Daniel A. Portnoy

147 Tetanus

C. Louise Thwaites, Lam Minh Yen

148 Botulism

Agam K. Rao, Susan Maslanka

149 Gas Gangrene and Other Clostridial Infections

Amy E. Bryant, Dennis L. Stevens


SECTION 6 Diseases Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

150 Meningococcal Infections

Andrew J. Pollard

151 Gonococcal Infections

Sanjay Ram, Peter A. Rice

152 Haemophilus and Moraxella Infections

Timothy F. Murphy

153 Infections Due to the HACEK Group and Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Bacteria

Tamar F. Barlam, Dennis L. Kasper

154 Legionella Infections

Victor L. Yu, M. Luisa Pedro-Botet, Yusen E. Lin

155 Pertussis and Other Bordetella Infections

Karina A. Top, Scott A. Halperin

156 Diseases Caused by Gram-Negative Enteric Bacilli

Thomas A. Russo, James R. Johnson

157 Acinetobacter Infections

Rossana Rosa, L. Silvia Munoz-Price

158 Helicobacter pylori Infections

John C. Atherton, Martin J. Blaser

159 Infections Due to Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas Species

Reuben Ramphal

160 Salmonellosis

David A. Pegues, Samuel I. Miller

161 Shigellosis

Philippe J. Sansonetti, Jean Bergounioux

162 Infections Due to Campylobacter and Related Organisms

Beth D. Kirkpatrick, Martin J. Blaser

163 Cholera and Other Vibrioses

Matthew K. Waldor, Edward T. Ryan

164 Brucellosis

Nicholas J. Beeching

165 Tularemia

Jeannine M. Petersen, Paul S. Mead

166 Plague and Other Yersinia Infections

Michael B. Prentice

167 Bartonella Infections, Including Cat-Scratch Disease

Michael Giladi, Moshe Ephros

168 Donovanosis

Nigel O?Farrell


SECTION 7 Miscellaneous Bacterial Infections

169 Nocardiosis

Gregory A. Filice

170 Actinomycosis

Thomas A. Russo

171 Whipple?s Disease

Thomas A. Russo

172 Infections Due to Mixed Anaerobic Organisms

Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper


SECTION 8 Mycobacterial Diseases

173 Tuberculosis

Mario C. Raviglione

174 Leprosy

Robert H. Gelber

175 Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

Steven M. Holland

176 Antimycobacterial Agents

Divya Reddy, Max R. O?Donnell


SECTION 9 Spirochetal Diseases

177 Syphilis

Sheila A. Lukehart

178 Endemic Treponematoses

Sheila A. Lukehart

179 Leptospirosis

Jir?i F. P. Wagenaar, Marga G. A. Goris

180 Relapsing Fever

Alan G. Barbour

181 Lyme Borreliosis

Allen C. Steere


SECTION 10 Diseases Caused by Rickettsiae, Mycoplasmas, and Chlamydiae

182 Rickettsial Diseases

David H. Walker, J. Stephen Dumler, Lucas S. Blanton, Thomas Marrie

183 Infections Due to Mycoplasmas

R. Doug Hardy

184 Chlamydial Infections

Charlotte A. Gaydos, Thomas C. Quinn


SECTION 11 Viral Diseases: General Considerations

185 Medical Virology

Fred Wang, Elliott Kieff

186 Antiviral Chemotherapy, Excluding Antiretroviral Drugs

Lindsey R. Baden


SECTION 12 Infections Due to DNA Viruses

187 Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

Lawrence Corey

188 Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

Richard J. Whitley

189 Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, Including Infectious Mononucleosis

Jeffrey I. Cohen

190 Cytomegalovirus and Human Herpesvirus Types 6, 7, and 8

Camille Nelson Kotton, Martin S. Hirsch

191 Molluscum Contagiosum, Monkeypox, and Other Poxvirus Infections

Fred Wang

192 Parvovirus Infections

Kevin E. Brown

193 Human Papillomavirus Infections

Darron R. Brown, Aaron Ermel


SECTION 13 Infections Due to DNA and RNA Respiratory Viruses

194 Common Viral Respiratory Infections

James E. Crowe, Jr.

195 Influenza

Peter F. Wright


SECTION 14 Infections Due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Other Human Retroviruses

196 The Human Retroviruses

Dan L. Longo, Anthony S. Fauci

197 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: AIDS and Related Disorders

Anthony S. Fauci, Gregory K. Folkers, H. Clifford Lane


SECTION 15 Infections Due to RNA Viruses

198 Viral Gastroenteritis

Umesh D. Parashar, Roger I. Glass

199 Enterovirus, Parechovirus, and Reovirus Infections

Jeffrey I. Cohen

200 Measles (Rubeola)

Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, William J. Moss

201 Rubella (German Measles)

Laura A. Zimmerman, Susan E. Reef

202 Mumps

Steven A. Rubin

203 Rabies and Other Rhabdovirus Infections

Alan C. Jackson

204 Arthropod-Borne and Rodent-Borne Virus Infections

Jens H. Kuhn, R�mi N. Charrel

205 Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Infections

Jens H. Kuhn


SECTION 16 Fungal Infections

206 Diagnosis and Treatment of Fungal Infections

John E. Edwards, Jr.

207 Histoplasmosis

Chadi A. Hage, L. Joseph Wheat

208 Coccidioidomycosis

Neil M. Ampel

209 Blastomycosis

S. Travis King, Rathel L. Nolan, III

210 Cryptococcosis

Arturo Casadevall

211 Candidiasis

John E. Edwards, Jr.

212 Aspergillosis

David W. Denning

213 Mucormycosis

Brad Spellberg, Ashraf S. Ibrahim

214 Superficial Mycoses and Less Common Systemic Mycoses

Carol A. Kauffman

215 Pneumocystis Infections

Alison Morris, Henry Masur


SECTION 17 Protozoal and Helminthic Infections: General Considerations

216 Introduction to Parasitic Infections

Sharon L. Reed, Charles E. Davis

217 Agents Used to Treat Parasitic Infections

Thomas A. Moore


SECTION 18 Protozoal Infections

218 Amebiasis and Infection with Free-Living Amebae

Rosa M. Andrade, Sharon L. Reed

219 Malaria

Nicholas J. White, Elizabeth A. Ashley

220 Babesiosis

Edouard Vannier, Peter J. Krause

221 Leishmaniasis

Shyam Sundar

222 Chagas Disease and African Trypanosomiasis

Fran�ois Chappuis, Yves Jackson

223 Toxoplasma Infections

Kami Kim

224 Protozoal Intestinal Infections and Trichomoniasis

Peter F. Weller


SECTION 19 Helminthic Infections

225 Introduction to Helminthic Infections

Peter F. Weller

226 Trichinellosis and Other Tissue Nematode Infections

Peter F. Weller

227 Intestinal Nematode Infections

Peter F. Weller, Thomas B. Nutman

228 Filarial and Related Infections

Thomas B. Nutman, Peter F. Weller

229 Schistosomiasis and Other Trematode Infections

Birgitte Jyding Vennervald

230 Cestode Infections

A. Clinton White, Jr., Peter F. Weller

PART 6 Disorders of the Cardiovascular System


SECTION 1 Introduction to Cardiovascular Disorders

231 Approach to the Patient with Possible Cardiovascular Disease

Joseph Loscalzo

232 Basic Biology of the Cardiovascular System

Joseph Loscalzo, Peter Libby, Calum A. MacRae

233 Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease

Thomas A. Gaziano, J. Michael Gaziano


SECTION 2 Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disorders

234 Physical Examination of the Cardiovascular System

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

235 Electrocardiography

Ary L. Goldberger

236 Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging: Echocardiography, Nuclear Cardiology, and Magnetic Resonance/Computed Tomography Imaging

Marcelo F. Di Carli, Raymond Y. Kwong, Scott D. Solomon

237 Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Angiography

Jane A. Leopold, David P. Faxon


SECTION 3 Disorders of Rhythm

238 Principles of Electrophysiology

David D. Spragg, Gordon F. Tomaselli

239 The Bradyarrhythmias: Disorders of the Sinoatrial Node

David D. Spragg, Gordon F. Tomaselli

240 The Bradyarrhythmias: Disorders of the Atrioventricular Node

David D. Spragg, Gordon F. Tomaselli

241 Approach to Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias

Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

242 Physiologic and Nonphysiologic Sinus Tachycardia

Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

243 Focal Atrial Tachycardia

Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

244 Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardias

Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

245 Common Atrial Flutter, Macroreentrant, and Multifocal Atrial Tachycardias

Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

246 Atrial Fibrillation

Gregory F. Michaud, William G. Stevenson

247 Approach to Ventricular Arrhythmias

Roy M. John, William G. Stevenson

248 Premature Ventricular Beats, Non-Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia, and Idioventricular Rhythm

Roy M. John, William G. Stevenson

249 Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia

Roy M. John, William G. Stevenson

250 Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation

Roy M. John, William G. Stevenson

251 Electrical Storm and Incessant VT

Roy M. John, William G. Stevenson


SECTION 4 Disorders of the Heart

252 Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Diagnosis

Douglas L. Mann, Murali Chakinala

253 Heart Failure: Management

Mandeep R. Mehra

254 Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis

Neal K. Lakdawala, Lynne Warner Stevenson, Joseph Loscalzo

255 Cardiac Transplantation and Prolonged Assisted Circulation

Mandeep R. Mehra

256 Aortic Valve Disease

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

257 Aortic Regurgitation

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

258 Mitral Stenosis

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

259 Mitral Regurgitation

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

260 Mitral Valve Prolapse

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

261 Tricuspid Valve Disease

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

262 Pulmonic Valve Disease

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

263 Multiple and Mixed Valvular Heart Disease

Patrick T. O?Gara, Joseph Loscalzo

264 Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult

Anne Marie Valente, Michael J. Landzberg

265 Pericardial Disease

Eugene Braunwald

266 Atrial Myxoma and Other Cardiac Tumors

Eric H. Awtry


SECTION 5 Coronary and Peripheral Vascular Disease

267 Ischemic Heart Disease

Elliott M. Antman, Joseph Loscalzo

268 Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina)

Robert P. Giugliano, Christopher P. Cannon, Eugene Braunwald

269 ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Elliott M. Antman, Joseph Loscalzo

270 Percutaneous Coronary Interventions and Other Interventional Procedures

David P. Faxon, Deepak L. Bhatt

271 Hypertensive Vascular Disease

Theodore A. Kotchen

272 Renovascular Disease

Stephen C. Textor

273 Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism

Samuel Z. Goldhaber

274 Diseases of the Aorta

Mark A. Creager, Joseph Loscalzo

275 Arterial Diseases of the Extremities

Mark A. Creager, Joseph Loscalzo

276 Chronic Venous Disease and Lymphedema

Mark A. Creager, Joseph Loscalzo

277 Pulmonary Hypertension

Aaron B. Waxman, Joseph Loscalzo

PART 7 Disorders of the Respiratory System


SECTION 1 Diagnosis of Respiratory Disorders

278 Approach to the Patient with Disease of the Respiratory System

Patricia A. Kritek, Bruce D. Levy

279 Disturbances of Respiratory Function

Edward T. Naureckas, Julian Solway

280 Diagnostic Procedures in Respiratory Disease

Anne L. Fuhlbrigge, Augustine M. K. Choi


SECTION 2 Diseases of the Respiratory System

281 Asthma

Peter J. Barnes

282 Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia

Praveen Akuthota, Michael E. Wechsler

283 Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease

John R. Balmes

284 Bronchiectasis

Rebecca M. Baron, Miriam Baron Barshak

285 Cystic Fibrosis

Eric J. Sorscher

286 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Edwin K. Silverman, James D. Crapo, Barry J. Make

287 Interstitial Lung Disease

Gary M. Hunninghake, Ivan O. Rosas

288 Disorders of the Pleura

Richard W. Light

289 Disorders of the Mediastinum

Richard W. Light

290 Disorders of Ventilation

John F. McConville, Julian Solway, Babak Mokhlesi

291 Sleep Apnea

Andrew Wellman, Susan Redline

292 Lung Transplantation

Elbert P. Trulock, III

PART 8 Critical Care Medicine


SECTION 1 Respiratory Critical Care

293 Approach to the Patient with Critical Illness

John P. Kress, Jesse B. Hall

294 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Rebecca M. Baron, Bruce D. Levy

295 Mechanical Ventilatory Support

Bartolome R. Celli


SECTION 2 Shock and Cardiac Arrest

296 Approach to the Patient with Shock

Anthony F. Massaro

297 Sepsis and Septic Shock

Christopher W. Seymour, Derek C. Angus

298 Cardiogenic Shock and Pulmonary Edema

David H. Ingbar, Holger Thiele

299 Cardiovascular Collapse, Cardiac Arrest, and Sudden Cardiac Death

Christine M. Albert, William G. Stevenson


SECTION 3 Neurologic Critical Care

300 Coma

S. Andrew Josephson, Allan H. Ropper, Stephen L. Hauser

301 Severe Acute Encephalopathies and Critical Care Weakness

J. Claude Hemphill, III, Wade S. Smith, S. Andrew Josephson, Daryl R. Gress

302 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

J. Claude Hemphill, III, Wade S. Smith, Daryl R. Gress

PART 9 Disorders of the Kidney and Urinary Tract

303 Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Kidney

Alfred L. George, Jr., Eric G. Neilson

304 Acute Kidney Injury

Sushrut S. Waikar, Joseph V. Bonventre

305 Chronic Kidney Disease

Joanne M. Bargman, Karl L. Skorecki

306 Dialysis in the Treatment of Renal Failure

Kathleen D. Liu, Glenn M. Chertow

307 Transplantation in the Treatment of Renal Failure

Jamil Azzi, Edgar L. Milford, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Anil Chandraker

308 Glomerular Diseases

Julia B. Lewis, Eric G. Neilson

309 Polycystic Kidney Disease and Other Inherited Disorders of Tubule Growth and Development

Jing Zhou, Martin R. Pollak

310 Tubulointerstitial Diseases of the Kidney

Laurence H. Beck, Jr., David J. Salant

311 Vascular Injury to the Kidney

Ronald S. Go, Nelson Leung

312 Nephrolithiasis

Gary C. Curhan

313 Urinary Tract Obstruction

Julian L. Seifter

PART 10 Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System


SECTION 1 Disorders of the Alimentary Tract

314 Approach to the Patient with Gastrointestinal Disease

William L. Hasler, Chung Owyang

315 Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Louis Michel Wong Kee Song, Mark Topazian

316 Diseases of the Esophagus

Peter J. Kahrilas, Ikuo Hirano

317 Peptic Ulcer Disease and Related Disorders

John Del Valle

318 Disorders of Absorption

Henry J. Binder

319 Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Sonia Friedman, Richard S. Blumberg

320 Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Chung Owyang

321 Diverticular Disease and Common Anorectal Disorders

Rizwan Ahmed, Susan L. Gearhart

322 Mesenteric Vascular Insufficiency

Satinderjit Locham, Mahmoud Malas

323 Acute Intestinal Obstruction

Danny O. Jacobs

324 Acute Appendicitis and Peritonitis

Danny O. Jacobs


SECTION 2 Nutrition

325 Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Assessment

Johanna Dwyer

326 Vitamin and Trace Mineral Deficiency and Excess

Paolo M. Suter, Robert M. Russell

327 Malnutrition and Nutritional Assessment

Gordon L. Jensen

328 Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

L. John Hoffer, Bruce R. Bistrian, David F. Driscoll


SECTION 3 Liver and Biliary Tract Disease

329 Approach to the Patient with Liver Disease

Marc G. Ghany, Jay H. Hoofnagle

330 Evaluation of Liver Function

Daniel S. Pratt

331 The Hyperbilirubinemias

Allan W. Wolkoff

332 Acute Viral Hepatitis

Jules L. Dienstag

333 Toxic and Drug-Induced Hepatitis

William M. Lee, Jules L. Dienstag

334 Chronic Hepatitis

Jules L. Dienstag

335 Alcoholic Liver Disease

Mark E. Mailliard, Michael F. Sorrell

336 Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

Manal F. Abdelmalek, Anna Mae Diehl

337 Cirrhosis and Its Complications

Bruce R. Bacon

338 Liver Transplantation

Raymond T. Chung, Jules L. Dienstag

339 Diseases of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts

Norton J. Greenberger, Gustav Paumgartner


SECTION 4 Disorders of the Pancreas

340 Approach to the Patient with Pancreatic Disease

Darwin L. Conwell, Norton J. Greenberger, Peter A. Banks

341 Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis

Darwin L. Conwell, Peter A. Banks, Norton J. Greenberger

PART 11 Immune-Mediated, Inflammatory, and Rheumatologic Disorders


SECTION 1 The Immune System in Health and Disease

342 Introduction to the Immune System

Barton F. Haynes, Kelly A. Soderberg, Anthony S. Fauci

343 The Major Histocompatibility Complex

Gerald T. Nepom

344 Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases

Alain Fischer


SECTION 2 Disorders of Immune-Mediated Injury

345 Urticaria, Angioedema, and Allergic Rhinitis

Katherine N. Cahill, Joshua A. Boyce

346 Anaphylaxis

David Hong, Joshua A. Boyce

347 Mastocytosis

Cem Akin, Joshua A. Boyce

348 Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases

Betty Diamond, Peter E. Lipsky

349 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Bevra Hannahs Hahn

350 Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos

351 Rheumatoid Arthritis

Ankoor Shah, E. William St. Clair

352 Acute Rheumatic Fever

Jonathan R. Carapetis

353 Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) and Related Disorders

John Varga

354 Sj�gren?s Syndrome

Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos

355 The Spondyloarthritides

Joel D. Taurog

356 The Vasculitis Syndromes

Carol A. Langford, Anthony S. Fauci

357 Beh�et?s Syndrome

Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos

358 Inflammatory Myopathies

Steven A. Greenberg, Anthony A. Amato

359 Relapsing Polychondritis

Carol A. Langford

360 Sarcoidosis

Robert P. Baughman, Elyse E. Lower

361 IgG4-Related Disease

John H. Stone

362 Familial Mediterranean Fever and Other Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases

Daniel L. Kastner


SECTION 3 Disorders of the Joints and Adjacent Tissues

363 Approach to Articular and Musculoskeletal Disorders

John J. Cush

364 Osteoarthritis

David T. Felson, Tuhina Neogi

365 Gout and Other Crystal-Associated Arthropathies

H. Ralph Schumacher, Lan X. Chen

366 Fibromyalgia

Leslie J. Crofford

367 Arthritis Associated with Systemic Disease, and Other Arthritides

Carol A. Langford, Brian F. Mandell

368 Periarticular Disorders of the Extremities

Carol A. Langford

PART 12 Endocrinology and Metabolism


SECTION 1 Endocrinology

369 Approach to the Patient with Endocrine Disorders

J. Larry Jameson

370 Mechanisms of Hormone Action

J. Larry Jameson

371 Physiology of Anterior Pituitary Hormones

Shlomo Melmed, J. Larry Jameson

372 Hypopituitarism

Shlomo Melmed, J. Larry Jameson

373 Pituitary Tumor Syndromes

Shlomo Melmed, J. Larry Jameson

374 Disorders of the Neurohypophysis

Gary L. Robertson

375 Thyroid Gland Physiology and Testing

J. Larry Jameson, Susan J. Mandel, Anthony P. Weetman

376 Hypothyroidism

J. Larry Jameson, Susan J. Mandel, Anthony P. Weetman

377 Hyperthyroidism

J. Larry Jameson, Susan J. Mandel, Anthony P. Weetman

378 Thyroid Nodular Disease and Thyroid Cancer

J. Larry Jameson, Susan J. Mandel, Anthony P. Weetman

379 Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex

Wiebke Arlt

380 Pheochromocytoma

Hartmut P. H. Neumann

381 Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

R. V. Thakker

382 Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes

Peter A. Gottlieb, Aaron W. Michels


SECTION 2 Sex- and Gender-Based Medicine

383 Disorders of Sex Development

John C. Achermann, J. Larry Jameson

384 Disorders of the Testes and Male Reproductive System

Shalender Bhasin, J. Larry Jameson

385 Disorders of the Female Reproductive System

Janet E. Hall

386 Menstrual Disorders and Pelvic Pain

Janet E. Hall

387 Hirsutism

David A. Ehrmann

388 Menopause and Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy

JoAnn E. Manson, Shari S. Bassuk

389 Infertility and Contraception

Janet E. Hall

390 Sexual Dysfunction

Kevin T. McVary

391 Women?s Health

Andrea Dunaif

392 Men?s Health

Shalender Bhasin, Shehzad Basaria

393 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Health

Baligh R. Yehia, Harvey J. Makadon


SECTION 3 Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Syndrome

394 Pathobiology of Obesity

Jeffrey S. Flier, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier

395 Evaluation and Management of Obesity

Robert F. Kushner

396 Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis, Classification, and Pathophysiology

Alvin C. Powers, Kevin D. Niswender, Carmella Evans-Molina

397 Diabetes Mellitus: Management and Therapies

Alvin C. Powers, Kevin D. Niswender, Michael R. Rickels

398 Diabetes Mellitus: Complications

Alvin C. Powers, John M. Stafford, Michael R. Rickels

399 Hypoglycemia

Philip E. Cryer, Stephen N. Davis

400 Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism

Daniel J. Rader, Sekar Kathiresan

401 The Metabolic Syndrome

Robert H. Eckel


SECTION 4 Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

402 Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Health and Disease

F. Richard Bringhurst, Marie B. Demay, Henry M. Kronenberg

403 Disorders of the Parathyroid Gland and Calcium Homeostasis

John T. Potts, Jr., Harald W. J�ppner

404 Osteoporosis

Robert Lindsay, Felicia Cosman

405 Paget?s Disease and Other Dysplasias of Bone

Murray J. Favus, Tamara J. Vokes


SECTION 5 Disorders of Intermediary Metabolism

406 Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

Darwin J. Prockop, John F. Bateman

407 Hemochromatosis

Lawrie W. Powell

408 Wilson?s Disease

George J. Brewer

409 The Porphyrias

Robert J. Desnick, Manisha Balwani

410 Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

John N. Mecchella, Christopher M. Burns

411 Lysosomal Storage Diseases

Robert J. Hopkin, Gregory A. Grabowski

412 Glycogen Storage Diseases and Other Inherited Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Priya S. Kishnani, Yuan-Tsong Chen

413 Inherited Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism in Adults

Nicola Longo

414 Inherited Defects of Membrane Transport

Nicola Longo

PART 13 Neurologic Disorders


SECTION 1 Diagnosis of Neurologic Disorders

415 Approach to the Patient with Neurologic Disease

Daniel H. Lowenstein, Joseph B. Martin, Stephen L. Hauser

416 Neuroimaging in Neurologic Disorders

William P. Dillon

417 Pathobiology of Neurologic Diseases

Stephen L. Hauser, Arnold R. Kriegstein, Stanley B. Prusiner


SECTION 2 Diseases of the Central Nervous System

418 Seizures and Epilepsy

Daniel H. Lowenstein

419 Cerebrovascular Diseases

Wade S. Smith, S. Claiborne Johnston, J. Claude Hemphill, III

420 Ischemic Stroke

Wade S. Smith, S. Claiborne Johnston, J. Claude Hemphill, III

421 Intracranial Hemorrhage

Wade S. Smith, J. Claude Hemphill, III, S. Claiborne Johnston

422 Migraine and Other Primary Headache Disorders

Peter J. Goadsby

423 Alzheimer?s Disease

William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller

424 Frontotemporal Dementia

William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller

425 Vascular Dementia

Joel Kramer, William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller

426 Dementia with Lewy Bodies

William W. Seeley, Caroline M. Tanner, Bruce L. Miller

427 Parkinson?s Disease

C. Warren Olanow, Christine Klein, Anthony H. V. Schapira

428 Tremor, Chorea, and Other Movement Disorders

C. Warren Olanow, Christine Klein, Jose A. Obeso

429 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases

Robert H. Brown, Jr.

430 Prion Diseases

Stanley B. Prusiner, Bruce L. Miller

431 Ataxic Disorders

Roger N. Rosenberg

432 Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System

Christopher H. Gibbons, John W. Engstrom

433 Trigeminal Neuralgia, Bell?s Palsy, and Other Cranial Nerve Disorders

M. Flint Beal, Stephen L. Hauser

434 Diseases of the Spinal Cord

Stephen L. Hauser

435 Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries

Geoffrey T. Manley, Stephen L. Hauser, Michael McCrea

436 Multiple Sclerosis

Bruce A. C. Cree, Stephen L. Hauser

437 Neuromyelitis Optica

Bruce A. C. Cree, Stephen L. Hauser


SECTION 3 Nerve and Muscle Disorders

438 Peripheral Neuropathy

Anthony A. Amato, Richard J. Barohn

439 Guillain-Barr� Syndrome and Other Immune-Mediated Neuropathies

Stephen L. Hauser, Anthony A. Amato

440 Myasthenia Gravis and Other Diseases of the Neuromuscular Junction

Anthony A. Amato

441 Muscular Dystrophies and Other Muscle Diseases

Anthony A. Amato, Robert H. Brown, Jr.


SECTION 4 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

442 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Gijs Bleijenberg, Jos W. M. van der Meer


SECTION 5 Psychiatric and Addiction Disorders

443 Biology of Psychiatric Disorders

Robert O. Messing, Eric J. Nestler, Matthew W. State

444 Psychiatric Disorders

Victor I. Reus

445 Alcohol and Alcohol Use Disorders

Marc A. Schuckit

446 Opioid-Related Disorders

Thomas R. Kosten, Colin N. Haile

447 Cocaine and Other Commonly Used Drugs

Karran A. Phillips, Antonello Bonci

448 Nicotine Addiction

David M. Burns

PART 14 Poisoning, Drug Overdose, and Envenomation

449 Heavy Metal Poisoning

Howard Hu

450 Poisoning and Drug Overdose

Mark B. Mycyk

451 Disorders Caused by Venomous Snakebites and Marine Animal Exposures

Charles Lei, Kirsten B. Hornbeak, Paul S. Auerbach, Robert L. Norris

452 Ectoparasite Infestations and Arthropod Injuries

Richard J. Pollack, Scott A. Norton

PART 15 Disorders Associated with Environmental Exposures

453 Altitude Illness

Buddha Basnyat, Geoffrey Tabin

454 Hypothermia and Peripheral Cold Injuries

Daniel F. Danzl

455 Heat-Related Illnesses

Daniel F. Danzl

PART 16 Genes, the Environment, and Disease

456 Principles of Human Genetics

J. Larry Jameson, Peter Kopp

457 The Practice of Genetics in Clinical Medicine

Susan M. Domchek, J. Larry Jameson, Susan Miesfeldt

458 Gene and Cell Based Therapy in Clinical Medicine

Katherine A. High, Malcolm K. Brenner

459 The Human Microbiome

Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper

PART 17 Global Medicine

460 Global Issues in Medicine

Joseph J. Rhatigan, Paul Farmer

461 Worldwide Changes in Patterns of Infectious Disease

George W. Rutherford, Jaime Sepulveda

462 Primary Care and Global Health

Tim Evans, Kumanan Rasanathan

PART 18 Aging

463 The Biology of Aging

Rafael de Cabo, David G. Le Couteur

464 Clinical Problems Associated with the Aging Process

Joseph G. Ouslander, Bernardo Reyes

PART 19 Consultative Medicine

465 Approach to Medical Consultation

Jack Ende, Jeffrey Berns

466 Medical Disorders During Pregnancy

Robert L. Barbieri, John T. Repke

467 Medical Evaluation of the Surgical Patient

Prashant Vaishnava, Kim A. Eagle

PART 20 Frontiers

468 Behavioral Economics and Health

Kevin G. Volpp, George Loewenstein, David A. Asch

469 Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Health Approaches

Josephine P. Briggs

470 Telomere Disease

Rodrigo T. Calado, Neal S. Young

471 The Role of Epigenetics in Disease and Treatment

Brian C. Capell, Shelley L. Berger

472 Mitochondrial DNA and Heritable Traits and Diseases

Karl L. Skorecki, Bruce H. Cohen

473 Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine

John A. Kessler

474 Microbial Genomics and Infectious Disease

Roby P. Bhattacharyya, Yonatan H. Grad, Deborah T. Hung

475 The Role of Circadian Biology in Health and Disease

Jonathan Cedernaes, Kathryn Moynihan Ramsey, Joseph Bass

476 Network Medicine: Systems Biology in Health and Disease

Joseph Loscalzo

477 Emerging Neurotherapeutic Technologies

Jyoti Mishra, Karunesh Ganguly

Index