Table of Contents

Cover image

Title Page

Copyright

Preface

Philosophical Framework

Structure of the Textbook

About the editors

Foreword by Lesley Page

Foreword by Ann Kinnear and Karen Guilliland

Contributors

Reviewers

Acknowledgements

Book 1 Contextual implications for midwifery practice

Section 1 Context

Chapter 1 The Australian and New Zealand context

Introduction

Australia

New Zealand

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Films and television

Chapter 2 Contemporary Australian and New Zealand midwifery and maternity services

Introduction

Contemporary Maternity Services in New Zealand

Similarities And Differences in Health Funding: Australia And New Zealand

Health Funding in Australia

Data Retrieval

Perinatal Statistics for Australia And New Zealand

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 3 Human rights in childbirth

Introduction

What Are Human Rights?

Why Human Rights?

Which Human Rights Are Violated in Maternity Care?

Review question: are you bearing witness to these human rights violations?

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 4 Fear and risk

Introduction

What Is Risk and How Do We Work With It?

How Does Fear Influence Midwifery and Obstetric Practice?

Review questions

Acknowledgements

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 5 Midwifery as primary healthcare

Introduction

Levels of Healthcare Services

Positioning Primary Healthcare Within the Healthcare System

Midwifery and Primary Healthcare

Australia's National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework (2013)

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 6 Birthplace and birth space

Introduction

Birth Moves From Home to Hospital

What Was Lost in the Move?

Birthplace

The Return of a Familiar Caregiver

What Is a ?Normal Birth??

Birth Space

Belief in Birth as a Normal Physiological Process

What Influences Place of Birth Decisions?

Acknowledgements

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 7 Ways of looking at evidence and measurement

Introduction

Qualitative Research Methods

The Randomised Controlled Trial

The Systematic Review

Meta-Analysis

Synthesising Research

Implementation Science or Knowledge Translation

Complex Interventions, Healthcare Policy and Realist Review

The Hierarchy of Evidence

Intervention Studies

Bias in Research Studies

Confidence Interval

Odds Ratio

Likelihood Ratio

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Section 2 The woman

Chapter 8 Social and environmental determinants of women's health

Introduction

Society and the Social Determinants of Health

Healthcare System

Environmental Determinants of Health

How Do the Social Determinants of Health Influence Outcomes?

Social Cohesion and Social Capital

Actions on SDH

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 9 Midwives working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

Introduction

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health in Australia

Why the Difference in Health Outcomes?

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Definition of Health

Birthing on Country

Making a Difference

The Way Forwards

Summary of Important Points

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 10 Midwives and M?ori women

Introduction

Colonisation and Assimilation

An Overview of M?ori Health

Cultural Competence

M?ori Midwifery Workforce Development

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 11 Options for women around fertility and reproduction

Introduction

World Population Trends

Fertility

Older Women and Childbirth

Teenage Pregnancies

Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) or Assisted Human Reproduction (AHR)

Methods of Assisted Reproduction

Laws About Donation

Demographics of Assisted Reproduction

Surrogacy

Midwifery Care for Women WHO Have Pregnancies Following ART

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Section 3 The midwife

Chapter 12 Professional frameworks for practice in Australia and New Zealand

Introduction

Development of the Midwifery Profession in Australia

Development of the Midwifery Profession in New Zealand

Midwifery Regulation in Australia

Midwifery Regulation in New Zealand

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 13 Legal frameworks for practice in Australia and New Zealand

Introduction: the Law

The Regulation of Midwifery Practice

Complaints and Professional Accountability Processes

Legal Aspects of Obtaining Informed Consent?Informed Choice in Australia And New Zealand

References

Privacy, Confidentiality and Access to Personal Information

Legislation on Midwifery Practice

Legislation on Drug Administration and Prescribing

Coroner's Court Legislation and Process

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 14 Supporting midwives, supporting each other

Introduction

Defining Sustainable Practice

Resilience and Sustainability in Midwifery

Midwifery Sustainability?Some Key Principles

Differing Roles and Sustainability?Caseloading Practice

Sustainable Core Hospital Midwifery

Review questions

Online resources

References/Acknowledgments

Further reading

Section 4 Practising partnership

Chapter 15 Midwifery partnership

Introduction

Partnering With Women

The Role of the Midwife

Theoretical Frameworks for Practice

The Origins of Cultural Safety and Midwifery Partnership

Cultural Safety and Midwifery Partnership in Other Contexts

Cultural Safety

Midwifery Partnership

T?ranga Kaupapa

Perspectives on Biculturalism and Midwifery From a Consumer

Cultural Competence

Review questions

Acknowledgements

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 16 Working in collaboration

Introduction

The Nature of Collaboration

Partnering Women When Collaboration Occurs

Collaboration in the Context of the Australian Maternity Reforms 2010

Professional Collaborations

The New Zealand Referral Guidelines

The Process of Referral

The Australian National Midwifery Guidelines for Consultation and Referral

Review questions

Online resources

References/Acknowledgments

Further reading

Chapter 17 Promoting physiological birth

Introduction

The Midwife as ?Guardian of the Normal?

The Rationale for Promoting Physiological Birth

Reflecting on Midwifery Practice Scenario One

Reflecting on Midwifery Practice Scenario Two

Reflecting on Midwifery Practice Scenario Three

Reflecting on Midwifery Practice Scenario Four

Reflecting on Midwifery Practice Scenario Five

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Book 2 Midwifery practice

Section 1 Autonomous practice

Chapter 18 Overview of reproductive physiology

Introduction

Female and Male Reproductive Systems

Embryology

Fetal Circulation

Maternal Changes Associated With Pregnancy

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 19 Nutrition and physical activity foundations for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation

Introduction: Nutrition in Pregnancy

Macronutrients

Micronutrients

Gestational Weight Gain

Maternal Obesity

The Use of Diet to Aid in Common Pregnancy Ailments

Listeria

Nutrition in Labour

Nutritional Foundation for Lactation

Physical Activity During Pregnancy

Postpartum Physical Activity

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 20 Screening and assessment

Introduction: Screening Guidelines

Screening Tests

The First Step in Effective Screening

Points in Pregnancy for Assessment and to Recommend or Offer Screening

Common Screening Tests Offered to Women During Pregnancy

Screening for Infections

Screening for Clinical Conditions

Review questions

Acknowledgements

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 21 Working with women in pregnancy

Introduction: Antenatal Care?What Is It?

Initial Contact

The Booking Visit

Reviewing the Past

Decision Points

Explanatory Sections

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 22 Applied physiology for labour and birth

Introduction

Physiology of Labour

What Initiates Labour?

First Stage of Labour

The Second Stage of Labour

Third Stage of Labour

Other Maternal Body Systems During Labour

Fourth Stage of Labour

Fetal Responses During Labour

Summary

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 23 Supporting women in labour and birth

Introduction

Developing the Woman?Midwife Relationship

The Continuum of Labour and Birth

Recognising Labour

First Decision Point in Labour

Second Decision Point in Labour

Third Decision Point in Labour

Ongoing Assessment of Progress in Labour

Labour: Transition Phase to Birth

Fourth Decision Point in Labour

Fifth Decision Point in Labour

Examination of the Baby

Ongoing Care in the First Few Hours

Documentation

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 24 Working with pain in labour

Introduction

Historical Perspectives on Pain in Labour

Women's Perspectives on Pain in Labour

Avoiding Assumptions About Women's Experiences of Pain in Labour

Pain in Labour and the Notion of Empowerment

Pain in Labour and the Midwife?Woman Relationship

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 25 Using water for labour and birth

Introduction

The Role of Water Birth in Supporting Physiological Birth

The History of Water Birth

The First Water Births in New Zealand And Australia

Using Water for Labour and Birth: the Evidence

Physiological Effects

What Women Say About Water Immersion

Safety and Efficacy of Using Water

Using Water for Labour and Birth: the Practice

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 26 Perineal care and repair

Introduction

Historical Perspectives

Midwives and Perineal Repair

Anatomy and Physiology of the Pelvic Floor

Perineal Trauma and Repair

Care of Women With Perineal Trauma in the Postnatal Period

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 27 Overview of physiological changes during the postnatal period

Introduction

Hormonal Changes

Involution of the Uterus

Postpartum Vaginal Blood Loss (Lochia)

Soft Tissue Healing

Renal System

Cardiovascular System

Respiratory System

Gastrointestinal System

Lactogenesis

Return of Menstruation and Ovulation

Summary of Key Learning Points

Review questions

Acknowledgement

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 28 Supporting women becoming mothers

Introduction

Parental Transition

The Midwife and Postnatal Care

Assessment of Women's Health

Frameworks for Midwifery Care

Physical Assessment of Maternal Health

Other General Health and Common Issues

Psychosocial Responses to Change

Reviewing and Assessing the Woman's Health Prior to Discharge From Care

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 29 Supporting the newborn

Introduction

The Transition to Extrauterine Life

Physiological Transition Following Birth

Physical Assessment of the Newborn

Care of the Newborn

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 30 Supporting the breastfeeding mother

Introduction

Breast Structure and Function

Composition of Breast Milk

Nutritional Properties of Breast Milk

Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding

Preparation for Breastfeeding

Initiation of Lactation and Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding Assessment and Milk Supply

Management of Breastfeeding Challenges

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 31 Pharmacology and prescribing

Introduction

Scope of Midwifery Prescribing

Safety of Medicines During Pregnancy and Lactation

Principles of Pharmacology

Antimicrobials

Commonly Administered Pharmaceutical Medicines and Conditions Associated With Childbirth

Postpartum Contraception

Rules for Writing Prescriptions

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 32 Contraception

Introduction

Contraceptive Counselling: The Role of the Midwife

Fertility Awareness Methods

Barrier Methods

Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives (Larcs)

Combined Hormonal Methods

Emergency Contraception

Other Contraceptive Methods

Permanent Contraception Methods

Review questions

Acknowledgements

Online resources

References

Further reading

Section 2 Collaborative practice

Chapter 33 Women's psychosocial health and wellbeing

Introduction

Maternal Social and Emotional Health and the Impact on the Infant

Risk and Protective Factors for Poor Maternal Social and Emotional Health

Psychosocial Assessment and Screening in the Perinatal Period

Perinatal Mental Health Issues

Eating Disorders in Pregnancy and After Birth

Drug and Substance Abuse During Pregnancy

Domestic and Family Violence (DFV)

Service System Response to Support Maternal and Infant Social and Emotional Health

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 34 Variations in normal

Introduction

Multiple Pregnancy

Breech Presentation

Review questions

Acknowledgements

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 35 Challenges in pregnancy

Introduction: Screening Guidelines

Vomiting in Pregnancy and Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Bleeding in Early Pregnancy

Bleeding Occurring in the Second and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy

Maternal Medical Conditions Diagnosed Before and During Pregnancy

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 36 Disturbances in the rhythm of labour

Introduction

When Does Labour Begin?

Active Management of Labour

Disturbances in the Rhythm of Labour?Dystocia

Maternal Dehydration, Ketosis and the Progress of Labour

The Effect of Anxiety and Fear on Labour Progress

Ineffective Contraction Patterns

Induction of Labour

Pre-Term Labour

Review questions

Acknowledgements

Online resources

References

Further Reading

Chapter 37 Interventions in pregnancy, labour and birth

Introduction

Avoiding Unnecessary Intervention

Cerebral Palsy

Interventions in Pregnancy

Interventions in Labour

Operative Birth

Caesarean Birth

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 38 Life-threatening emergencies

Maternal Life-Threatening Conditions

Review questions

Acknowledgements

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 39 Complications in the postnatal period for the mother

Introduction

Postpartum Mortality and Morbidity

Early Complications (First Few Days) of the Postnatal Period

Longer-Term Postpartum Complications

Longer-Term Emotional and Psychological Complications

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 40 The compromised neonate

Introduction

Care of the Baby With a Congenital Abnormality

Neonatal Resuscitation

Care of the Neonate After Resuscitation

Common Conditions That Affect the Newly Born Infant's Airway

Circulation

Neonatal Infection

Jaundice

Disability

Abdominal Wall Defects

Neonatal Transfer

Supporting the Mother and Family With a Sick Baby

Review questions

Online resources

References

Further reading

Chapter 41 Grief and loss during childbearing?the crying times

Introduction

Hannah's Story?A Love That Never Ends

Natasha's Story?A Fractured Future

Putting It All Together?Understanding the Stages of the Journey

Should We Encourage Parents to Parent A Dying or Dead Child?

How Do Midwives Walk Alongside a Grieving Family?

Children and Grief

Fathers and Loss

Grandparents Hurt Too

An Aotearoa-Nz Perspective on Caring After Perinatal Loss

The ?Sorry Business?: Caring for Aboriginal Women

Facts and Figures You Should Know

Review questions

Acknowledgements

Online resources

References

Further reading

Photo credits

Index