Table of Contents

Cover image

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Section 1 Profession of Pediatrics

Care of Children in Society

Current Challenges

Landscape of Health Care for Children in the United States

Other Health Issues That Affect Children in the United States

Health Disparities in Health Care for Children

Changing Morbidity: Social/Emotional Aspects of Pediatric Practice

Culture

Concept of Professionalism

Professionalism for Pediatricians

Ethics in Health Care

Ethical Principles Related to Infants, Children, and Adolescents

Legal Issues

Ethical Issues in Practice

Palliative and End-of-Life Care

Bereavement

Cognitive Issues in Children and Adolescents: Understanding Death and Dying

Cultural, Religious, and Spiritual Concerns About Palliative Care and End-of-Life Decisions

Ethical Issues in End-of-Life Decision-Making

Organ Donation in Pediatrics

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 2 Growth and Development

Health Maintenance Visit

Physical Development

Newborn Period

Later Infancy

School Age/Preadolescent

Adolescence

Developmental Milestones

Psychosocial Assessment

Modifying Psychosocial Behaviors

Temperament

Developmental Surveillance and Screening

Other Issues in Assessing Development and Behavior

Evaluating Developmental and Behavioral Issues

Screening Tests

Immunizations

Dental Care

Nutritional Assessment

Anticipatory Guidance

Multifaceted Team Assessment of Complex Problems

Management of Developmental Problems

Selected Clinical Problems: the Special Needs Child

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 3 Behavioral Disorders

Normal Development

Colic

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Differential Diagnosis

Anticipatory Guidance and Management

Etiology

Epidemiology

Differential Diagnosis

Complications

Anticipatory Guidance

Normal Development of Elimination

Enuresis

Functional Constipation and Soiling

Acknowledgment

Adolescent Sleep

Sleep Disorders

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 4 Psychiatric Disorders

Bipolar and Related Disorders

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

Suggested Readings

Pearls for PrActioners

Section 5 Psychosocial Issues

Etiology

Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations

Treatment

Complications

Psychosocial Short Stature

Neglect

Physical Abuse

Sexual Abuse

Management

Development of Sexuality

Homosexuality

Development of Gender Identity

Gender Dysphoria

Family Functions

Family Structure

Family Dysfunction: Physical Needs

Family Dysfunction: Emotional Support, Education, and Socialization

Intimate Partner Violence and Children

Youth Violence

Assault and Bullying

Dating Violence and Date Rape

Violence and Technology

Trauma Informed Care

Divorce

Separations From Parents

Death of a Parent or Family Member and Bereavement

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 6 Pediatric Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders

Breast Feeding

Formula Feeding

Complementary Foods

Nutrition Issues for Toddlers and Older Children

Milk

Juices

General Recommendations

Salt Intake

Iron Intake

Nutrition Issues for Adolescents

Definitions

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Assessment

Prevention

Treatment

Failure to Thrive

Marasmus

Kwashiorkor

Mixed Marasmus-Kwashiorkor

Treatment of Malnutrition

Complications of Malnutrition

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Minerals

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 7 Fluids and Electrolytes

Body Composition

Regulation of Intravascular Volume and Osmolality

Maintenance Fluids

Replacement Therapy

Dehydration

Monitoring and Adjusting Therapy

Indications

Access for Parenteral Nutrition

Composition of Parenteral Nutrition

Complications

Hyponatremia

Hypernatremia

Hypokalemia

Hyperkalemia

Clinical Assessment of Acid-Base Disorders

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Alkalosis

Respiratory Acid-Base Disturbances

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 8 Acutely Ill or Injured Child

Initial Assessment

History

Physical Examination

Common Manifestations

Initial Diagnostic Evaluation

Resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary Arrest

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology and Epidemiology

Hypovolemic Shock

Distributive Shock

Cardiogenic Shock

Obstructive Shock

Dissociative Shock

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Epidemiology and Etiology

Education for Preventing Injuries

Assessment and Resuscitation

Etiology and Epidemiology

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Clinical Manifestations and Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Treatment

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Complications

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Treatment

Prognosis

Prevention

Assessment

Pain and Analgesia

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 9 Human Genetics and Dysmorphology

Types of Genetic Disorders

Introduction to Genetics and Genomics

Other Types of Genetic Disorders

Teratogenic Agents

Preconception and Prenatal Counseling

General Approach to Patients

Abnormalities in Number (Aneuploidy)

Syndromes Involving Chromosomal Deletions

Syndromes Involving Chromosome Duplication

Definitions

History and Physical Examination

Laboratory Evaluation

Diagnosis

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 10 Metabolic Disorders

Signs and Symptoms

Types of Clinical Presentation of Inborn Errors

Clinical Assessment and Laboratory Testing

Genetic Aspects of Inborn Errors

Identification of Inborn Errors by Neonatal Screening

Overview of Treatment

Glycogen Storage Diseases

Galactosemia

Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

Phenylketonuria

Tyrosinemias

Homocystinuria

Maple Syrup Urine Disease

Disorders of Ammonia Disposal

Disorders of Amino Acid Transport That Affect Specific Transport Mechanisms in the Kidney and Intestine

Disorders of Organic Acid Metabolism

Propionic Acidemia and Methylmalonic Acidemia

Isovaleric Acidemia

Glutaric Acidemia I

Biotinidase Deficiency and Holocarboxylase Deficiency

Disorders of Fatty Acid Oxidation

Glutaric Aciduria Type II

Carnitine Deficiency

Peroxisomal Disorders

Lysosomal Storage Disorders

Diagnostic Testing

Treatment Strategies

Mitochondrial Function

Signs and Symptoms of Genetic Disorders of Mitochondrial Function

Biochemical Abnormalities in Mitochondrial Function

Genetics of Mitochondrial Disorders

Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 11 Fetal and Neonatal Medicine

Assessment of the Mother

Fetus and Newborn

Assessment of the Fetus

Assessment of the Newborn

Neurological Assessment

Miscellaneous Disorders

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Idiopathic (Immune) Thrombocytopenia

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Neonatal Hyperthyroidism

Diabetes Mellitus

Other Conditions

Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Small for Gestational Age

Hydrops Fetalis

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)

Complications of Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

Primary Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn

Apnea of Prematurity

Anemia

Hyperbilirubinemia

Neonatal Seizures

Intracranial Hemorrhage

Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

Toxoplasmosis

Rubella

Cytomegalovirus

Herpes Simplex Virus

Congenital Syphilis

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Hepatitis B

Chlamydia

Zika Virus

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 12 Adolescent Medicine

Interviewing Adolescents

Physical Growth and Development of Adolescents

Psychological Growth and Development of Adolescents

Early Adolescence (Ages 10-14 Years)

Middle Adolescence (Ages 15-17 Years)

Late Adolescence (Ages 18-21 Years)

Pelvic Examination

Normal Variants of Puberty

Menstrual Disorders

Pregnancy

Contraception

Rape

Anorexia Nervosa

Bulimia Nervosa

Acute Overdose

Acute and Chronic Effects

Treatment

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 13 Immunology

History

Physical Examination

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Evaluation

Etiology and Clinical Manifestations

Treatment

Prevention and Newborn Screening

Etiology and Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory Diagnosis

Treatment

Prognosis and Prevention

Etiology

Laboratory Studies

Treatment

Complications

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 14 Allergy

History

Physical Examination

Initial Diagnostic Evaluation

Diagnostic Imaging

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis and Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Treatment and Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis and Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 15 Rheumatic Diseases of Childhood

History

Physical Examination

Common Manifestations

Initial Diagnostic Evaluation

Laboratory Testing

Diagnostic Imaging

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Presentation

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Growing Pains

Benign Hypermobility

Myofascial Pain Syndromes and Fibromyalgia

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 16 Infectious Diseases

Initial Diagnostic Evaluation

Differential Diagnosis

Screening Tests

Diagnostic Imaging

Immunization

Prophylaxis

Fever in Infants Younger Than 3 Months of Age

Fever in Children 3 Months to 3 Years of Age

Fever of Unknown Origin

Measles (Rubeola)

Rubella (German or 3-Day Measles)

Roseola Infantum (Exanthem Subitum)

Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)

Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection (Chickenpox and Zoster)

Superficial Bacterial Infections

Superficial Fungal Infections

Superficial Viral Infections

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Differential Diagnosis

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory Evaluation

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory Studies and Imaging

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Gonorrhea

Chlamydia

Syphilis

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

Trichomoniasis

Genital Warts (Human Papillomaviruses)

Pubic Lice

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory Tests and Imaging

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Prevention

Vascular Device Infections

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Urinary Catheters

Peritoneal Dialysis–Associated Infections

Central Nervous System Shunts

Lyme Disease

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis

West Nile Virus (see Chapter 101)

Protozoal Diseases

Helminthiases

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications and Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 17 Digestive System

History

Physical Examination

Screening Tests

Diagnostic Imaging

Common Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disorders

Effects of Systemic Disease on the Oral Cavity

Deciduous and Primary Teeth

Dental Caries

Cleft Lip and Palate

Thrush

Gastroesophageal Reflux

Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

Esophageal Foreign Bodies

Caustic Injuries and Pill Ulcers

Pyloric Stenosis

Peptic Disease

Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

Malrotation

Intestinal Atresia

Other Congenital Disorders

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Celiac Disease

Milk and Soy Protein Intolerance (Allergic Colitis)

Intussusception

Appendicitis

Cholestasis

Viral Hepatitis

Fulminant Liver Failure

Chronic Liver Disease

Selected Chronic Hepatic Disorders

Pancreatic Insufficiency

Acute Pancreatitis

Chronic Pancreatitis

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Treatment

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 18 Respiratory System

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Pulmonary Physiology

History

Physical Examination

Diagnostic Measures

Therapeutic Measures

Apnea

Brief Resolved Unexplained Events

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Pectus Excavatum and Carinatum

Pneumothorax

Pneumomediastinum

Pleural Effusion

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 19 Cardiovascular System

History

Physical Examination

Laboratory and Imaging Tests

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Etiology and Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Etiology and Epidemiology

Ventricular Septal Defect

Atrial Septal Defect

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Endocardial Cushion Defect

Pulmonary Stenosis

Aortic Stenosis

Coarctation of the Aorta

Tetralogy of Fallot

Transposition of the Great Arteries

Tricuspid Atresia

Truncus Arteriosus

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Complications of Congenital Heart Disease

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Imaging Studies

Treatment

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Treatment and Prevention

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Imaging Studies

Treatment

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Imaging and Laboratory Studies

Treatment

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 20 Hematology

History

Physical Examination and Common Manifestations

Initial Diagnostic Evaluation

Developmental Hematology

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Normal Hemostasis

Developmental Hemostasis

Hemostatic Disorders

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 21 Oncology

History

Physical Examination

Common Manifestations

Differential Diagnosis

Initial Diagnostic Evaluation

Oncological Emergencies

Surgery

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Other Therapies

Adverse Effects

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory/Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory/Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory/Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory/Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Prognosis and Complications

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory/Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 22 Nephrology and Urology

History

Physical Examination

Renal Physiology

Common Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Imaging Studies

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Therapy

Prognosis and Prevention

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Treatment and Prognosis

Acute Kidney Injury

Chronic Kidney Disease

Definition

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Prognosis

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Imaging

Treatment

Urinary Tract Stones

Voiding Dysfunction

Disorders of the Penis

Disorders and Abnormalities of the Scrotum and Its Contents

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 23 Endocrinology

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis

Disorders of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis

Definition

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Youth (MODY)

Definition

Clinical Manifestations

Pathophysiology

Energy Stores

Idiopathic Ketotic Hypoglycemia

Disrupted Metabolic Response Pathways

Other Metabolic Disorders

Medications and Intoxication

Diagnosis

Emergency Management

Growth

Abnormalities of Growth

Physiology

Delayed Puberty

Sexual Precocity

Variations in Pubertal Development

Thyroid Physiology and Development

Thyroid Disorders

Nodules/Tumors of the Thyroid

Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D

Hypocalcemia

Rickets

Normal Sexual Development

Abnormal Sexual Development

Approach to the Infant With Genital Ambiguity

Physiology

Adrenal Insufficiency

21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

Other Enzyme Defects

Addison Disease

Cushing Syndrome

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 24 Neurology

History

Physical Examination

Neurological Examination of a Neonate

Neurological Examination of a Child

Cranial Nerve Evaluation

Motor Examination

Sensory Examination

Special Diagnostic Procedures

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Etiology and Epidemiology

Focal Seizures

Generalized Seizures

Epilepsy Syndromes

Status Epilepticus

Laboratory and Diagnostic Evaluation

Long-Term Therapy

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Disease of the Upper Motor Neuron

Diseases of the Lower Motor Neuron

Neonatal and Infantile Hypotonia

Stroke in Childhood

Ataxia

Movement Disorders

Disorders of Consciousness

Increased Intracranial Pressure

Traumatic Brain Injury

Hereditary and Metabolic Degenerative Diseases

Acquired Illnesses Mimicking Degenerative Diseases

Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Sturge-Weber Syndrome

Congenital Anomalies of the Spinal Cord

Congenital Malformations of the Brain

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 25 Dermatology

History

Physical Examination

Common Manifestations

Initial Diagnostic Evaluation and Tests

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prognosis

Prevention

Etiology and Epidemiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Prevention

Etiology

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory and Imaging Studies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Prognosis

Prevention

Other Papulosquamous Dermatoses

Dermal Melanosis

Café-Au-Lait Macules

Congenital Melanocytic Nevi

Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevi

Acquired Melanocytic Nevi

Vascular Tumors

Vascular Malformations

Erythema Multiforme

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Scabies

Pediculoses

Suggested Readings

Pearls for Practitioners

Section 26 Orthopedics

Growth and Development

Developmental Milestones

Pediatric Fracture Patterns

Management of Pediatric Fractures

Special Concerns

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

Transient Monoarticular Synovitis

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Torsional Variations

Angular Variations

Leg-Length Discrepancy

Knee

Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus)

Metatarsus Adductus

Calcaneovalgus Foot

Hypermobile Pes Planus (Flexible Flatfoot)

Tarsal Coalition

Cavus Foot

Idiopathic Avascular Necrosis

Sever Disease (Calcaneal Apophysitis)

Toe Deformities

Spinal Deformities

Scoliosis

Kyphosis

Torticollis

Back Pain in Children

Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

Diskitis

Shoulder

Elbow

Wrist and Hand

Suggested Reading

Pearls for Practitioners

Index