Index

Note: Page numbers set bold or italic indicate headings or figures, respectively.

5

50-yard line view 224

9

90� Lasso device 111

A

Abduction brace 170

Accessor anterior?inferior instrumentation portal 82

Accessory anterolateral portals 47

Accessory percutaneous anterior portals 151

Accessory percutaneous portals 233

Accessory portal 66

Accurate trajectory 202

Acellular dermal allograft 175

Acellular dermal extracellular matrices (ECMS) 278

Achilles allograft 235

Achilles tendon allograft 237

Achilles tendon allograft preparation 237

Acromioplasty 47, 48, 165, 184, 191

Active range of motion (AROM) 196

Active rom 161

Active-assisted rom 61

Adduction 265

Adduction strength 267

Adequate mobilization of the rotator cuff tissue 33

Adequate subacromial bursectomy 42

Adequate visualization 114

Adjunct procedures 215

Adjustable arm positione 152

Aggressive strengthening 73

All-arthroscopic anchorless transosseous rotator cuff repair 88

All-arthroscopic repair of the subscapularis 106

All-arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction with dermal allograft 188

All-arthroscopic, single-row repair of the subscapularis 109

All-suture anchor 196

Allograft passage 238

Allografts, cadavers using 4

Allografts 279

American shoulder 4

American shoulder and elbow surgeons (ASES) 178

Anatomic restoration of the footprint 61

Anchor placement on the medial footprint 167

Anchor placement on the superior glenoid 165

Anchor suture stack 252

Anchor-based cuff repair methods 82

Anchor-based rip-stop rotator cuff repair 231

Antegrade suture passer 230

Anterior bursectomy 125

Anterior cuff and biceps tendon 252

Anterior midglenoid (AMG) 249

Anterior midglenoid portal (AMGP) 7, 248

Anterior portal 36

Anterior reinforcement of supraspinatus attachment 26

Anterior superior portal 82

Anterior supraspinatus tear 134

Anterior suture anchor 24

Anterior tunnel sutures 78

Anterolateral accessory portal 122

Anteroposterior direction 164

Anterosuperior portal 90

Anterosuperolateral portal 229

Anticipated portal sites 146

Arm intraoperatively 174

Arthrocopic double-row repair techniques 93

Arthroscopic anchorless transosseous rotator cuff repair technique 88

Arthroscopic cutter or radiofrequency device 194

Arthroscopic double-row transosseous equivalent repair of large rotator cuff tears 58

Arthroscopic grasper 100

Arthroscopic grasper mobilizing 101

Arthroscopic knot pusher 78

Arthroscopic knot tying 78, 200

Arthroscopic knot-tying technique 111

Arthroscopic portal placement 194

Arthroscopic radiofrequency ablation device 105

Arthroscopic repair of subscapularis tear 146

Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair 63, 109

Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair methods 19

Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair technique 19

Arthroscopic rotator cuff tears 58

Arthroscopic single row subscapularis repair 114

Arthroscopic single-anchor 113

Arthroscopic single-row repair technique 114

Arthroscopic single-row rotator cuff repairs 93

Arthroscopic single-row subscapularis tendon repair 109

Arthroscopic square knots 144

Arthroscopic suprapectoral biceps tenodesis 200

Arthroscopic suprapectoral biceps tenodesis with lasso loop 205

Arthroscopic suture anchor repair of massive rotator cuff tears 258

Arthroscopic technique 82, 113

Arthroscopic tools 77

Arthroscopic transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair 53

Arthroscopic transosseous revision rotator cuff repair 217

Arthroscopic transosseous technique 217

Arthroscopic transosseous tunneling technique 76

Arthroscopic Transtendon Double-row Subscapularis Repair with all Suture Medial Row Anchors 151

Arthroscopic tunneler instrument 219

Arthroscopically assisted lower trapezius transfer for irreparable 235

Articular-sided tear 147

Articulated arm-holding device 105, 210

Associated lateral suture tails 221

Associated open subpectoral biceps tenodesis 63

Autogenous tissue graft 28

Autologous fascia lata 165

B

Balloon insertion device 244

Balloon size reference guide 244

Beanbag device 146

Biceps crescent sutures 27

Biceps management 122

Biceps suturing 205

Biceps tendon 23, 225

Biceps tenodesis techniques 49, 250

Biceps tenotomy 225, 237

Biceps treatment 113

Bicipital sheath 122

Biofiber graft 1

Bioinductive bovine augment patch 36, 36

Bioinductive implant 44

Bioinductive patch augment 43

Blue fibertape 179

Blunt arthroscopic elevator 43

Blunt hohmann retractor 194

Blunt trocar 120

Bone marrow aspirate 2

Bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) 3

Bone marrow aspirate concentrate augmentation 1

Bone marrow stimulation technique 149, 226

Bone-to-tendon healing process 280

Bone?tendon contact pressure 94

Bovine achilles tendon 44

Bovine achilles xenograft matrix 279

Bulky knot 248

Bursal-sided technique 17, 19?20

Bursectomy 24, 116, 218

C

Cannulas (arthrex) 71

Capsulotomy of posterior 23

Cefazolin, clindamycin, or vancomycin 67

Cellular human dermal allograft rotator cuff reconstruction 248

Cephalosporin 259

Clark rail attachment 6

Classical double-row technique 94

Classical single-row technique 94

Color-coded hemostat system 78?79

Complete and retracted tears 140

Complete visualization 210

Compression double-row repair technique 167, 167

Concealed bursal-sided tear 147

Concomitant treatment 113

Conventional arthroscopic rotator cuff repair 227

Coracoacromial (CA) ligament 59

Coracoacromial ligament 2, 24, 123

Coracoacromial ligament transaction 73

Coracohumeral ligament 24

Coracohumeral ligament complex 118

Coracoidplasty 100, 105

Coracoplasty 110

Coracoplasty 148

Crescent suture hook 251

Crimson duvet-augmented rotator cuff repair 6

Crochet hook 102

Cross-linked type i collagen and glycosaminoglycan 239

Cuff mobilization 218

Cuff tissue medial to the rip-stop horizontal mattress sutures 33

Curved metzenbaum scissors 193

Cutting block technique 110

D

Debridement 218, 248

Degenerated 170

Delay knot tying 233

Dermal allograft 174

Dermal allografts 250, 271

Dermal augmentation 271, 281

Dermal augmentation of rotator cuff repairs 280

Dermal grafts 280

direct pass method 251

Direct pass suture needle device 251

Direct suture passing 251

Direct sutureanchor technique 259

Direct-repair comparison group 261

Direct-repair group 268

Disposable measuring device 180

Distal clavicle excision 70

Dog-ear 44

double pulley 152

Double row technique 53

Double-pulley technique 175

Double-loaded suture anchors 138

Double-pulley technique 176, 189

Double-row configuration 34

Double-row construct 154

Double-row repair 45, 61, 107, 157, 233

Double-row repair techniques 10

Double-row repair with biceps tendon augmentation 23

Double-row rotator cuff repair 50, 61

Double-row short-term 94

Double-row subscapularis repair 96

Double-row suture bridge technique 148

Double-row technique 33?34, 73, 107, 175

Double-row transosseous equivalent 53

Double-row transosseous-equivalent repair of rotator cuff tears 58

Double-row, rip-stop technique 32

Double-row, suture-bridge technique 73

Doublerow technique 12

Draping 65

Dx matrix graft 187

E

Electrocautery device 110

Electrothermal cutting device 100

Electrothermal device 100, 103

Enter subacromial space 212

Excursion test 100

Exposed lesser tuberosity 135

Expressew iii (depuy mitek) suture passer 124, 129

Extensive bursectomy 218

External rotation 235, 265

External rotation strength 266

Extrinsic subacromial impingement 19

F

?Forgotten? rotator cuff tear 113

Failed rotator cuff repairs 210

Fascia lata autograft 163

Fastpass scorpion 101

Fiberlink 39

Fiberlink suture 38

Fibertape suture 103

Fiberwire 43, 167

Fibroblastic ingrowth 279

Finish biceps preparation 205

First suture anchor 249

Fixation to the greater tuberosity 238

Food and drug administration trial 243

Footprint preparation 83, 218

Forward flexed position for the subscapularis repair 131

Four-anchor repair of massive subscapularis tear 156

Free stitch for dog-ear 44

Freeze-dried graft of a rotator cuff 3

Full passive motion 72

Full thickness rotator cuff tear 14

Full thickness tears 106

Full-thickness subscapularis tears 96

Fully arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair 90

G

Garofalo technique 94

Glenohumeral arthroscopy 110, 116

Glenohumeral distraction 1

Glenohumeral intraarticular work 212

Glenohumeral joint 198, 225

Glenohumeral joint pathology 30

Glenohumeral position 218

Glenohumeral shoulder arthroscopy 2

Gold standard technique 82, 88

Gold standard transosseous cuff repair 85

Graft size 164

Graftjacket 4

Grand canyon view 224

H

Half hitches 106

Harvesting the fascia lata and making the autograft 165

Head biceps tenotomy 90

Helicoil anchor placement 205

Hidden pulley lesions 118

High-speed bone-cutting shaver 8

High-tension double-row repairs 213

Highspeed bone-cutting bur 157

Hohmann retractor 193

Horizontal mattress configuration 31

Horizontal mattress knot 78

Horizontal mattress pattern 111

Horizontal mattress sutures 78

Horizontal mattress technique 157

Hybrid cuff repair 83

Hybrid technique 82

Hybrid techniques 85

Hypotensive anesthesia 114

I

Ideal suture grasper 49

Immediately post-op protocol 106

Immobilization with passive shoulder external rotation 72

In situ tenodesis 196

Inappropriate tensioning 106

Inferior medial anchor placement 101

Inferolateral (IL) anchor 158

Inferomedial portal 208

Infraspinatus in horizontal mattress configuration 32

Infraspinatus tendon 169, 235

Initial portal placement 37

Inside-out technique 7

Inspace technique 246

Instrumentation portal 85

Internal rotation 265

Interscalene block 114

Interval exposure 205

Intraarticular approach 147

Intraoperative data 263

Intraoperative preparation of the acellular dermal graft 275

Inverted mattress suture 102

Investigational device exemption (IDE) 246

Irreparable rotator cuff tears 172, 174, 258

Irreparable tear of subscapularis tendon 169

Irreparable tears 258

Isolated subscapularis tendon tear 148

J

Jamshidi needle 2

Joint mobilization 72

K

Knot back into the joint 84

Knot pusher 137, 260

Knot-tying technique 80

Knotless fixation 82

Knotless lateral row anchors 84

Knotless opus magnum suture anchors 19

Knotless rip-stop (KRS) repair 229, 232

Knotless rip-stop repairs 229

Knotless rip-stop technique 232

L

Large and massive rotator cuff tears 271

Large lateral working portal 71

Large rotator cuff tears 1

Lasso loop configuration 185

Lasso loop technique 184

Lateral decubitus position 36, 96

Lateral double-row anchor sutures 33

Lateral knot 77

Lateral or accessory lateral subacromial portal 33

Lateral portal 76, 224, 230

Lateral portal in a right shoulder in the beach chair position 48

Lateral portal of a right shoulder two-anchor 50

Lateral row anchor 49

Lateral row fixation 103

Lateral row sutures 105

Lateral row triple-loaded anchor 33?34

Lateral subacromial portal 146

Lateral subacromial portals 218

Lateral traction device 146

Lateral viewing portal 47

Lesion of the retracted subscapularis tendon 148

Lesser tuberosity 111, 138

Lesser tuberosity (LT) preparation 147

Lhbt tenotomy 67

Lift off 265

Lift-off strength 267

Limited bursectomy 47

Load-sharing rip-stop 229?230

Loading?sharing rip-stop (LSRS) suture technique 229

Long head of the biceps (LHB) 193

Long head of the biceps brachii (LHB) pathology 63

Long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) 63

Loop of the shuttling suture 78

Low anterolateral portal 82?83

Low inferomedial and anterior portal 208

Low load prolonged stretches 161

Lower trapezius (LT) 235

Lower trapezius tendon harvesting 237

Lower trapezius tendon harvesting and mobilization 238

M

Mason?Allen stitch 234

Massive irreparable rotator cuff repair 243

Massive rotator cuff tears 229, 229

Massive rotator cufftears 229

Massive tears 278

Mattress suture 103

Mattress technique 260

Medial (acromial edge) portal 77

Medial and lateral suture limbs 78

Medial fixation 184

Medial fixation points 83

Medial fixation row 30

Medial glenoid anchors 176

Medial row anchors 32

Medial row horizontal mattress sutures 33

Medial row rip-stop suture 34

Medial row rotator cuff repair 6

Medial row sutures 32, 105

Medial seal 43

Medial seal failure 44

Medial seal technique 40

Medial suture 221

Medial suture passage 185

Medial tunnel sites 219

Medialized single-row repair 213

Mediolateral direction 164

Mesenchymal stem cells 4

Middle glenohumeral ligament 121

Middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) 116, 157

Midlateral portal 36, 82

Midlateral subacromial portal (MLSP) 8, 8

Minimally invasive technique 63

Missed tears 139

Mobilization 237

Mobilization of the subscapularis 152

Mobilization of the tendon 114

Mobilize subcutaneous skin flaps 238

Monofilament absorbable suture (monocryl) 71

Motorized arthroscopic shavers 71

Motorized rasp 157

Multiple channeling 149, 224

Multiple different biceps tenodesis techniques 208

N

Needle-passing device 129, 139

Neurovascular structures 153

Non-weight-bearing waist-level activity 3

Nonabsorbable suture 245

Nonabsorbable sutures 237

Nonarthroplasty techniques 178

Nonoperative therapy 214

Nonsliding knot 78

Nonsliding revo knot 250

O

One loaded fiberwire 44

Open architecture anchor 48

Open or mini-open rotator cuff repair 58

Open rotator cuff repair 113

Open subpectoral tenodesis 70

Open transosseous rotator cuff repair 88

Operative arm holder 64

Operative treatment of rotator cuff tears 58

Opus m-connector 259

Opus magnum knotless implant anchor 259

Opus magnum smartstitch device 20

Opus smartstitch device 19, 260

Opus smartstitch suture device 17

Opus smartstitch suturing device 259

Ourall-arthroscopic surgical technique 188

Outside-in technique 217?218

Outside-in technique 1, 7, 46?47, 110, 115, 133, 178

P

Partial cuff repair 237

Partial tear in the leading edge 147

Partial thickness tear 14

Pass first stitch 212

Pass mattress stitches 213

Passive range of motion (PROM) 51, 80, 196

Passive rom 160

Passport cannula 38

Patch augment 44

Patch re-tear rate 268

Patient demographics 262

Perfect passer 259

Perfect passer system 20

Perform a repair using the speedbridge (arthrex) 40

Pilot-hole creation 112

Placement of bioinductive bovine augment patch 42

Placement of our accessory anterior anchor 40

Placement of provisional traction suture reducing anchor 39

Platelet-rich plasma 148

Platelet-rich plasma 215, 224

Pneumatic arm holder 1

Polydioxanone (pds ii) suture 226

Polydioxanone suture (PDS) 9

Porcine allograft 184

Porcine dermal collagen 279

Porcine xenograft 178

Portal placement technique 98

Posterior anchor sutures 32

Posterior glenohumeral viewing portal 229

Posterior labrum 225

Posterior mattress sutures 24?25

Posterior midglenoid (PMG) cannula 249

Posterior midglenoid portal 217

Posterior midglenoid portal (PMGP) 7, 248

Posterior portal 229

Posterior suture anchor 24, 25

Posterior viewing portal 47

Posterolateral edge of the acromion 1

Posterolateral portal 77, 224

Posterolateral portal (portal of wilmington) 36

Posterolateral portals 47

Posteromedial suture 9

Posterosuperior rotator cuff tears 235

Preferred knots 72

Preincision considerations 66

Primary repair of posterosuperior cuff tears 235

Prophylactic antibiotics 259

Provide double-row, anatomic footprint reconstruction 82

Provisional traction suture reducing anchor 36

Proximal biceps 198

R

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) device 67

Randomized control trial 21

Randomized controlled trials (RCTS) 278

Randomized trial 13

Range of motion 265

Re-tear rates of isolated subscapularis tears 142

Recurrent rotator cuff tears 46

Removal of loose implants 218

Repair technique 167

Retracted subscapularis tendon tear 148

Retrograde suture passer 48, 220

Retrograde suture passers 51

Reusable tunneling device 83

Reverse guided transosseous technique 94

Reverse shoulder arthroplasty 174, 178

Reverse shoulder arthroplasty rehabilitation 187

Reverse side of the harvested fascia lata 166

Reverse ?crimson duvet? 233

Reverse-guided technique 90

Reverse-l-shaped full-thickness supraspinatus tear 48

Revision rotator cuff repair and techniques for mobilization 210

Rip-stop configuration 34

Rip-stop configurations 30

Rip-stop sutures 234

Rip-stop technique 33?34, 35

Rip-stop techniques 30, 35

Rotator cuff footprint 38

Rotator cuff repair 55, 187, 212, 224, 281

Rotator cuff tendons during surgery 213

Row rotator cuff repair technique involves a medial row 6

S

Scoi row rotator cuff repair 6

SCOI row technique 12

Scorpion device 180

Scorpion suture passing device 60

Scorpion suture-passing device 157, 158

Scr technique 174

Screw-type suture anchors 170

Second rotator interval portal 110

Short-tailed interference knot (STIK) 248

Shoulder arthroscopic evaluation 248

Shoulder arthroscopy 194

Shoulder pain persistent 214

Shoulder rating 264

Shoulder satisfaction 264

Shuttle graft 182

Side-to-side suturing 169

Simple double-row speedbridge technique 36

Simple shoulder test (SST) 255

Simple suture patterns 78

Single, weight-appropriate dose of iv antibiotics 67

Single-anchor hybrid technique 85

Single-row repair for upper third subscapularis tears 113

Single-row repair techniques 10

Single-row rotator cuff repair using graft augmentation 1

Single-row technique 93, 107

Single-row, extraarticular technique 114

Single-tendon tear repairs 278

Singlecost-effective anchor 84

Skeletonize coracoid base 157

Sliding knot 10

Sliding suture knot 11, 93

Sliding-locking knot 249

Sliding-locking knot 111, 252

Slippage-proof knot 226

Slit technique 198

Small diameter suture shuttle device 194

Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) 279

Small self-retrieving suture device 193

Small upper border subscapularis tears 149

Smartstitch device 17

Soft tissue protector sleeve 219

Southern california orthopedic institute (SCOI) 6

Speed bridge technique 190

Speedbridge 167

Speedbridge construct 41

Speedbridge double-row repair 41

Speedbridge fixation 168

Speedbridge preparation 43

Speedbridge repair of massive rotator cuff tears 36

Speedbridge technique 40, 43

Speedbridge with the medial seal technique 41

Square knot 78

Standard antegrade or retrograde techniques 84

Standard anterior portal 76

Standard arthroscopic set 105

Standard beach chair 63

Standard portals 36

Standard posterior glenohumeral viewing portal 174

Standard posterior portal 76?77, 82, 148, 244

Standard posterosuperior arthroscopic portal 243

Standard supine beach chair positioning 58

Static knot 152

Stik knot 251

Stockinette 6

Subacromial access/assessment 38

Subacromial assessment and decompression 120

Subacromial balloon spacer for irreparable cuff tears 243

Subacromial bursal tissue 163

Subacromial contact forces 177

Subacromial debridement 54

Subacromial decompression 24, 73, 175

Subacromial decompression (SAD) 8

Subacromial exposure 205

Subacromial space 59, 68?69

Subcoracoid decompression 156

Subcoracoid impingement 110

Subpectoral biceps tenodesis 193, 196

Subpectoral biceps tenodesis technique 193

Subscapularis 174

Subscapularis pathology 119

Subscapularis tear 99, 110, 137

Subscapularis tears 165

Subscapularis tendon 225

Subscapularis tendon mobilization 100

Subscapularis tendon repair 157

Subscapularis tendon tear 148

Subscapularis tendon tear with supraspinatus tendon tear 147

Subsequent simple suture knot 220

Super shuttle 10

Superelastic transosseus needle (STN) 91

Superior anteromedial portal 91?92

Superior border of the repaired subscapularis 143

Superior capsular reconstruction 163, 188, 191

Superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) 163, 178

Superior capsular reconstruction with allograft 174

Superior capsule reconstruction 163, 167

Superior glenohumeral ligament 118

Superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL) 225

Superior glenoid 163

Superior labrum 225

Superior medial suture placement 102

Superior tendinous portion 154

Superior third tears of the articular surface 118

Superior tunnel passing suture 208

Superior working portal 90, 91

Superolateral (SL) anchor 159

Suprapectoral biceps tenodesis 144

Supraspinatus crescent sutures 27

Supraspinatus repair 213

Supraspinatus strength 265, 265

Supraspinatus stump 25

Supraspinatus tendon 36

Supraspinatus tendon (SST) 63, 64

Supraspinatus tendon extension 26

Surgical u-drapes 109

Suture anchor technique 201

Suture bridge technique 148

Suture knot stack 11

Suture limbs outside of the shoulder 78

Suture management 79, 85, 112

Suture passage 83, 101

Suture passage device 102

Suture passage through the cuff 219

Suture passage with the transosseoustunneler 219

Suture passer device 189

Suture passing device 78

Suture passing devices 72

Suture savers 10

Suture shuttle device 184

Suture shuttle technique 249

Suture shuttling 219

Suture shuttling/passing devices 105

Suture tying 221

Suture-bridge technique 63, 68

Suture-passing technique 141

Suturelasso device 72

Sutures and tapes tangling 185

Suturetak anchors 179

Suturing technique 212

Switching stick 91

Swivelock anchor 102, 152

Swivelock anchors 168

Symptomatic posterosuperior rotator cuff tears 235

Synthetic grafts 279

Synthetic matrixes 279

Synthetic patches for interpositional graft use 258

T

T-max leg elevator pillow 217

Tag biceps with suture 205

Tape-like sutures 80

Tear mobilization 125

Tendon 70

Tendon protection device 239

Tendon tissue 170

Tendon-grasping sutures 208

Tennessee knot 69

Tenodesis 46

Tenodesis technique 201

Tenotomized biceps tendon 25

Tenotomy 153, 206

Tension band inverted mattress suture technique 19

Tension-free rotator cuff repair 6

Teres minor 169

Third triple-loaded anchor 32

Three mattress sutures 50

Threvo ?Italian Loop? method 250

Tie down and pull 206

Tie-as-you-go technique 10

Tornier arthrotunneler tunnelpro system 77

Traction stitch 43, 184

Traction suture 148

Traction sutures 38, 111

Transos tunneler 83

Transosseous arthroscopic biceps tenodesis 207

Transosseous arthroscopic biceps tenodesis technique 82

Transosseous cuff repair and biceps 29

tenodesis 83

Transosseous equivalent 214

Transosseous equivalent (TOE) repair 57

Transosseous equivalent repair 73

Transosseous equivalent supraspinatus tendon repair 69

Transosseous equivalent technique 73

Transosseous fixation 82

Transosseous repair 76, 84

Transosseous suture technique 94

Transosseous technique 80

Transosseous techniques 85

Transosseous tunnel repair 80

Transosseous tunneling device 217

Transosseous tunnels 220

Transtendon repair technique 153

Transtendon technique 152

Trapezius to allograft repair 239

Triple loaded anchors 3

Triple-loaded anchor 24, 48, 212

Triple-loaded rotator cuff repair 6

Triple-loaded suture anchor 249

Triple-loaded, medial-row anchor allows six sutures 50

True transosseous hybrid rotator cuff repair 82

Tuberosity anchors 189

Tuberosity coverage 23

Tuberosity footprint 46

Tuberosity preparation 127

Tunnel creation 83

Tunneler device 76

Tunneling 219

Two double-loaded biocomposite anchors 31

Two double-loaded medial anchors 32

Two fixation point transosseous 82

Two graft sutures 3

Two medial awl tunnels 207

Two-anchor, double-row repair 50

Two-anchor, double-row rotator cuff repair 46

Tying the anchored sutures 253

Tying the mattress and crossing ?X? stitch 84

Tying the simple sutures 84

U

Ubscapularis 96

Undersurface of the coracoids of the coracoids 135

Undersurface repair technique 16, 19

Undersurface rotator cuff repair technique 21

Undersurface technique 15, 20?21

Unloaded swivelock 158

Use of biologics in orthopaedics 3

Ushaped tear 45

V

Very specific repair technique 10

Visual analog pain scale (VAS) 255

W

Weave technique 260

Whipstitch 70

Wound closure 195

X

X stitch 84

Xenografts 279

Xenografts, cadavers using 4