Chorionic villus sampling and materno-fetal transfusions: an immunological pathogenesis of vascular disruptive syndromes?

Chorionic villus sampling and materno-fetal transfusions: an immunological pathogenesis of vascular disruptive syndromes?

Chorionic villus sampling and materno-fetal transfusions: an immunological pathogenesis of vascular disruptive syndromes?

Abstract

Experimental materno-embryonic transfusions with serum that is immunologically active against blood group antigens cause congenital malformations in the rat embryo. In view of the possible increased incidence of vascular disruptive syndromes after chorionic villus sampling (CVS), we investigated the occurrence of materno-fetal transfusions (MFTs) in this procedure. In 18 pregnant women experiencing two needle introductions at CVS, we looked immunohistochemically at the presence of haemoglobin A1-containing maternal erythrocytes in the fetal circulation of the separately collected first and second chorionic villus samples. In 4 of 18 patients (22 per cent), a significant increase of maternal cells was observed in the second sample compared with the first sample, indicating the occurrence of MFT by CVS. On the rare occasion of maternal immunization against fetal antigens, a CVS-associated MFT might provoke immunological damage to the fetus.

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