Combination of platelet-rich plasma with polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for segmental bone defect repair

Combination of platelet-rich plasma with polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for segmental bone defect repair

Combination of platelet-rich plasma with polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for segmental bone defect repair

Abstract

Porous scaffold biomaterials may offer a clinical alternative to bone grafts; however, scaffolds alone are typically insufficient to heal large bonedefects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that osteoinductive growth factor or gene delivery significantly improves bone repair. However, given the important role of vascularization during bone regeneration, it may also be beneficial to incorporate factors that promote vascular ingrowth into constructs. In this study, a strategy combining structural polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) composite scaffolds with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was tested. Following bilateral implantation of constructs into 8 mm rat nonunion femoral defects, 3D vascular and bone ingrowth were quantified at 3 and 12 weeks using contrast-enhanced microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging. At week 3, PRP-treated femurs displayed 70.3% higher vascular volume fraction than control femurs. Interestingly, bone volume fraction (BVF) was significantly higher for the empty scaffold group at the early time point. At 12 weeks, BVF measurements between the two groups were statistically equivalent. However, a greater proportion of PRP-treated femurs (83%) achieved bone union as compared to empty scaffold controls (33%). Consistent with this observation, biomechanical evaluation of functional integration also revealed a significantly higher torsional stiffness observed for PRP-treated defects compared to empty scaffolds. Ultimate torque at failure was not improved, however, perhaps due to the slow resorption profile of the scaffold material. Histological evaluation illustrated infiltration of vascularized connective tissue and bone in both groups. Given that bone ingrowth into untreated defects in this model is minimal, PCL-TCP scaffolds were clearly able to promote bone ingrowth but failed to consistently bridge the defect. The addition of PRP to PCL-TCP scaffolds accelerated early vascular ingrowth and improved longer-term functional integration. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the use of PRP, alone or in combination with other bioactive components, may be an effective approach to augment the ability of porous biomaterial scaffolds to repair orthotopic defects.

read online

Post Comment