GABA Effects During Neuronal Differentiation of Stem Cells

GABA Effects During Neuronal Differentiation of Stem Cells

GABA Effects During Neuronal Differentiation of Stem Cells

Abstract

Gamma-amino butyrate (GABA) is the most
prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain. In this
review, we summarize the pharmacology and regulation of
GABAergic transmission components (biosynthetic enzymes,
receptors and transporters) in adult non-neurogenic brain
regions.The effects of targetedmutations in genes relevant for
GABAergic functions and how they influence specific neuronal
circuits and pathological states are presented. We then
review GABA actions on neuronal differentiation. During
brain development, GABA has depolarizing activity in cerebrocortical
neural precursors, controlling cell division and
contributing to neuronal migration and maturation. In the
adult forebrain there are two neurogenic regions exposed to
synaptic and non-synaptic GABA release. Neural stem cells
and neuronal progenitors express GABA receptors in subventricular
and subgranular zones. GABA effects in these
cells are very similar to those found in embryonic cortical
precursor cells, and therefore it is possible that this amino acid
has important roles during adult brain plasticity.

 

 

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