This book focuses on the materials used for dental applications looking at the fundamental issues and the developments that have taken place the past decade. While it provides a broad overview of dental materials, the chemicals that are used for the preparation and fabrication of dental materials are explained as well. Also, the desired properties of these materials are discussed and the relevance of the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties is elucidated. Methods for the characterization and classification, as well as clinical studies are reviewed here. In particular, materials for dental crowns, implants, toothpaste compositions, mouth rinses, as well as materials for toothbrushes and dental floss are discussed. For example, in toothpaste compositions, several classes of materials an chemcials are incorporated, such as abrasives, detergents, humectants, thickeners, sweeteners, coloring agents, bad breath reduction agents, flavoring agents, tartar control agents, and others. These chemicals, together with their structures, are detailed in the text.