Multiple Polyphosphoinositide Pathways Regulate Apoptotic Signalling in a Dorsal Root Ganglion Derived Cell Line

Multiple Polyphosphoinositide Pathways Regulate Apoptotic Signalling in a Dorsal Root Ganglion Derived Cell Line

Multiple Polyphosphoinositide Pathways Regulate Apoptotic Signalling in a Dorsal Root Ganglion Derived Cell Line

Abstract

The polyphosphoinositides play important roles in transmembrane signalling but are also involved in anchoring cell surface proteins, organellar transport, cytoskeleton organization, and cell survival. The polyphosphoinositides synthesized by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), (Ptd(3,4)InsP2, and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), appear to play a critical role in cell survival by membrane recruitment and activation of Akt kinase. Inhibitors of PI3K, wortmannin, and LY294002, induced a time-dependent activation of caspase-3 (CPP32), with a peak at 6 hr, leading to subsequent cell death by apoptosis in a dorsal root ganglion cell line (F-11). Lowering cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels enhanced both caspase-3 activation and cell death induced by PI3K inhibitors, whereas a nonhydrolyzable cAMP analog (Bt2cAMP), lowered CPP32 and was protective. We stably transfected the F-11 cells with the constitutively active p110 catalytic subunit of PI-3 kinase and observed resistance to both caspase-3 (CPP32) activation and subsequent apoptosis induced by either wortmannin or LY294002. Treatment of F-11 cells with bradykinin (BK) stimulated the hydrolysis of a different polyphosphoinositide, PtdIns(4,5)P2, and enhanced both wortmannin-induced caspase-3 (CPP32) activation and subsequent apoptosis. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is also a precursor of the anti-apoptotic PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 and lowering cAMP levels with opioid agonists for 30 min enhanced both the hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5) P2 and cellular apoptosis. The enhancement was opioid dose-dependent and opioid antagonist (naloxone)-reversible and was also seen following 24-hr exposure to opioids such as U69,593 and Dala2, Dleu5 enkephalin (DADLE). However, unlike the bradykinin stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis following activation of phospholipase C, the opioid-enhanced hydrolysis was independent of external Ca2+ and was blocked by pertussis toxin, suggesting a different mechanism involving GI, GO, or betagamma-subunits. In summary, both the receptor-mediated lowering of cAMP levels and the hydrolysis of 4,5-polyphosphoinositides have no direct effect on caspase-3 activity or apoptosis but do exacerbate the activation of caspase-3-like activity and subsequent cell death by apoptosis induced by inhibitors of 3-polyphosphoinositide synthesis. We suggest that multiple polyphosphoinositide pathways are involved in the regulation of apoptosis.

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