Nanomedicine is the medical diagnosis, monitoring and applying treatment
at the level of single molecules or molecular assemblies that provide
structure, control, signals, homeostasis, and motility in living cells. The
significance of these researches lies in the development of platform
technology which includes nanoscale molecular imaging, drug delivery,
gene delivery and diagnostic approach. The approach involves the use of
quantum dot probes specifically targeted to known nuclear markers to
elucidate the cellular dynamics of oxidative stress in living cells.
Dendrimers based nanomedicine was developed for protein mimicry
research, nano-pharmaceuticals, diagnostic imaging with contrast agents,
and targeted drug delivery in cancer cells. Biosensors with nanoscale
materials provide unique and powerful technology for detection of
biological and chemical species regarding disease diagnosis and discovery
and screening of new drug molecules. The development of a cancer
therapy and monitoring with diagnostic nanotechnology include cancer
related genotyping detection, gene expression and immunochemical
analysis, and near real time monitoring of patient blood for cancer cells.
Nanotechnology was developed for detection of molecular mechanisms
responsible for certain cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis.
Nano-polymers have also found utility in enhancing in vivo imaging of
various cardiovascular disorders. Nanotechnology and molecular self
assembly with nanofiber has been developed to repair injured brain
structures and effective treatment of central nervous system and other
tissue or organ trauma. On the other hand, many nanomaterials have
potential toxicity for cells due to their small size, large surface area, and
high reactivity. These are the main risk factors for the potential toxicity for
the lung, skin, vessel, eye and other organs. The future studies should be
performed to evaluate the systemic toxic effects of nanomaterials in
environmental exposure paradigms.
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