Selective Depletion of Stored Calcium by Thapsigargin Blocks Rotavirus Maturation but Not the Cytopathic Effect

Selective Depletion of Stored Calcium by Thapsigargin Blocks Rotavirus Maturation but Not the Cytopathic Effect

Selective Depletion of Stored Calcium by Thapsigargin Blocks Rotavirus Maturation but Not the Cytopathic Effect

Abstract

Rotavirus matures inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a site of intracellular calcium storage. Total cell Ca2+ depletion has been shown to impair virus maturation, arresting this process at the membrane-enveloped intermediate form following its budding into the ER. On the other hand, rotavirus infection leads to an increase in the internal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and sequestered Ca2+ pools. We have used thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-ATPase of the ER, to release stored Ca2+ and to study its role in rotavirus morphogenesis and cytopathic effect. Thapsigargin (0.1 to 1 microM) released stored Ca2+ from MA-104 cells, as measured by chlorotetracycline fluorescence. The concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2+, measured with fura2, increased in infected cells whether treated or not with thapsigargin. Infectivity was decreased dose dependently by thapsigargin (3 log units at 0.25 to 1 microM). In infected cells treated with thapsigargin, glycosylation of VP7 and NS28 was inhibited. Electron microscopy of infected cells treated with thapsigargin showed normal synthesis of viroplasm. However, only membrane-enveloped, not double-shelled, particles could be observed within the ER. The conformation of VP7 in infected cells treated with thapsigargin appeared to be altered, as suggested by decreased immunofluorescence reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to highly conformation-dependent VP7 epitopes. The progression of cell death in infected cells, as measured by penetration of ethidium bromide, was not affected by thapsigargin. These results indicate that rotavirus maturation depends on a high sequestered [Ca2+], specifically in the ER. Cell death is the result of the accumulation of a viral product and is not related to the production of infective particles. This viral product(s) may be responsible for the increase in [Ca2+]i, which in turn leads to cell death.

 

 

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