This book shows that the medical consequences of low-dose, low-rate exposures to ionizing radiation have been overestimated by certain scientists, which apparently occurred in accordance with unofficial policies and directives. It analyses and exposes the biases and hidden conflicts of interest in numerous scientific publications overestimating the medico-biological consequences of low-dose radiation. After the Chernobyl accident, many publications exaggerated its medical consequences. Among the motives for this were financing, publication pressure, and career prospects. The accident has been exploited to strangle nuclear energy, thus boosting fossil fuel prices. In more developed countries, anti-nuclear sentiments have been supported by green activists, in agreement with the interests of fossil fuel producers, certain companies and governments. Today, however, there are no alternatives to nuclear energy; in the long run, non-renewable fossil fuels will become more expensive, contributing to the excessive population growth in oil-producing regions and to poverty elsewhere.