After chemistry, the origins of biochemistry began at the end of the 19th century. The first major step was made when glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c, was found to be a precious index to follow an adapted antidiabetic treatment. This discovery led to the identification of cell receptors, present in vascular cells, leukocytes, neuronal cells. One such cell receptor, RAGE, has been shown to be a major contributor in cell alteration, the development of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus, ageing, and Alzheimers disease. This book shows that the axis AGE-RAGE and the activation of RAGE by other ligands open up a possible new therapeutic approach to prevent complications of diabetes mellitus and ageing. As such, it will particularly appeal to chemists, biochemists, biologists, immunologists, nutritionists, doctors, cardiologists, and neurologists.